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Awlgrip Application Guide - Above Waterline


The Awlgrip Application Guide is in five basic parts:
  1. General Guidelines - Includes recommendations and tips for:
    • Surface cleaning.
    • Application equipment selection.
    • Air compressors and compressed air.
    • Sanding and masking materials.
    • General paint environment.
  2. Above Waterline Application Systems
  3. Below Waterline Application Systems
  4. Troubleshooting
  5. General Information - includes
    • Glossary of Paint Terms
    • Maintaining the Topcoats
Complete Application Guide in .pdf format
Requires Acrobat Reader available from Adobe
If after reading the material you still have specific questions, call, fax, or write the Customer Service Department

  • United States
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    IL 60085,
    USA
    Telephone: +1 847 599 6212
    Fax: +1 847 599 6209
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  • Australia
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    Queensland 4209,
    Australia
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    or 1800 007 866
    Fax: +61 7 5529 9329
  • Singapore
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    Telephone: +65 6453 1981
    Fax: +65 6453 1778


Application Guide - Above Waterline



Application Systems
  1. Surface Preparation and Priming - Previously Painted Surfaces Compatibility
  2. Surface Preparation and Application of Products
  3. Surface Preparation and Priming - Fiberglass/Gelcoat
  4. Surface Preparation and Priming - Aluminum
  5. Surface Preparation and Priming - Wood
  6. Surface Preparation and Priming - Steel
  7. Fairing and Surfacing
  8. Final Priming and Topcoating
  9. Brightwork
Next Chapter - Below Waterline Application Systems
Previous Chapter - General Guidelines
Back to top of pageSurface Preparation and Priming -
Previously Painted Surfaces Compatibility

There are many situations where repainting is needed but removing all the old paint is impractical. However, the cost of labor and materials for a sand and repaint is significant and there is no gain in painting over a system that is severely deteriorated or chemically incompatible with the Awlgrip Coatings Systems.

When considering such a project, carefully evaluate the surface and the condition of the current topcoat and the coatings under it all the way down to the substrate. Old paint that is peeling extensively, heavily chalked, blistered, or cracked should be completely removed.

Metal substrates should be thoroughly examined for corrosion. This includes obvious corrosion damage and slight blistering which may indicate corrosion just ready to break the surface. Large blisters or soft spots in the film may indicate old fairing work that is failing. On fiberglass substrates, these conditions may be indicative of voids in the glass system or osmotic blistering. These conditions must be repaired before applying new coatings.

After initial evaluation, perform the following three tests in the order listed, to determine the adhesion of the old system and its chemical compatibility with the Awlgrip Coating Systems.

Performing these tests on more than one area will add validity to the results. Make notes, collect chips, and take photos for the job file. If any of the following compatibility tests fail, the old coatings must be removed down to a sound coating layer or to the substrate.

Please take this testing seriously, as new epoxy-urethane systems have failed because of unstable underlying coatings and fillers. While the tests are not fool proof, if strictly followed they can be very accurate. Diligence in performing the tests can save hours of costly labor, down time, and wasted materials.

Assuming the existing paint system passes the adhesion and compatibility tests, repainting would include the following:
  • Inspection of the surface.
  • Removal of coatings which fail the adhesion and compatibility tests.
  • Repair of defects.
  • Priming the entire surface.
  • Application of an Awlgrip or Awlcraft 2000 Topcoat.
Conditions and remedies should be discussed with the owner, possibly using a condition report or making notes in the painting contract. Areas that were not repaired because of time or budget must be noted on the final invoice.

Coatings Compatibility & Adhesion Tests

Test One: Cross Hatch Adhesion (See diagram right.)
  1. Select a test area or areas on the surface to be painted. Thoroughly clean, de-wax, and degrease this area.
  2. With a single-edge razor blade, scribe a 2" x 2" test area in a 1/4" checkerboard pattern. The cuts must be deep enough to reach the substrate. On a thick fairing system this test may have to be done to several different layers.
  3. Apply 3M #610, #895 or #898 3M Scotch Brand Filament Tape (or similar type of packaging tape) over the scribed area, making certain that the tape is tightly adhered to the test surface. Do not use masking tape.
  4. With an abrupt yank, pull the tape back parallel to the surface. To pull the tape straight up will give no test at all.
  5. Examine the test surface. If any square of old coating in the scribed area is removed, the adhesion has failed. All the failed layers must be removed.
Test Two: Solvent Resistance
  1. Saturate a cotton ball or small wad of cloth with one of the Awlgrip Topcoat or Primer Reducers. (T0006 or T0003).
  2. Tape the reducer saturated ball to the scribed area surface for 30 minutes.
  3. After 30 minutes, remove the cotton ball. If the reducer has dissolved or severely softened the old coating, the coating is incompatible and must be removed. If the scribed area has remained intact, allow a 15 minute recovery period and repeat all steps in Test 1 again.
  4. If any square areas are removed, all the failed layers must be removed.
Test Three: Coating Compatibility
If the old coating is still intact after Tests 1 and 2, perform Test 3.
  1. Lightly sand a small test area with 220 grit paper. Clean the sanded areas thoroughly with Awl-Prep and clean cloths.
  2. Paint a small patch of the surface with Awlgrip Topcoat. Do not use masking tape on the edges of the test application as the paint edges created by the tape will "print through" and be visible in the finish.
  3. Allow the coated area to cure for 24 hours, at temperatures above 77°F.
  4. After the area has been allowed to cure, check for intercoat adhesion with Test 1 Cross Hatch Adhesion Test.
  5. If there is no lifting, wrinkling, or loss of adhesion caused by this cross hatch test, the Awlgrip Coating Systems are compatible and surface preparation can begin.
If this test fails, all coatings must be removed down to a sound, well adhered, compatible coating or to the original substrate.


Back to top of pageSurface Preparation and Application of Products
Surfaces that are sound and chemically compatible with Awlgrip
Coating Systems and no heavy filling or fairing is required.
  1. Thoroughly clean the surface, scrubbing with household cleanser. Wipe with Awl-Prep or Awl-Prep Plus, using the Two Cloth Method. See surface cleaning.
  2. Inspect the surface for pinholes and small scratches . Mark the imperfections with a pencil. Do not use a felt tip marker or ink pen.
  3. Scratch sand the imperfections with 80 grit paper creating both a feathered edge and a proper surface profile over which primers and fillers can be applied. Prime these areas with either 545 Epoxy Primer (Spray) or Awl-Quik Epoxy Primer (Brush & Roll). Allow to cure 12 hours or overnight.
    If bare metal was exposed by the 80 grit sanding, prime the bare metal with the recommended Awlgrip anti-corrosive primer before applying other primers or fillers.
    See aluminum, steel or blister repair sections for details on bare metal surface preparation and priming.
    Caution: If polyester putties are used, they should be kept to an absolute minimum. Only use polyester putties for pinholes and very slight scratches or dings. Polyester putties shrink and distort rapidly. Epoxy fillers are much more stable products. Do not apply polyester putties over or under Awl-Fair L.W.
  4. Block sand the filled areas leaving a smooth, level surface.
  5. Smooth sand the entire surface with 100-180 grit to remove all gloss from the previous finish.
  6. Blow off the surface with clean, dry compressed air while dry wiping with clean rags to remove sanding dust and residue.
    Then wipe with Awl-Prep T0008 using the Two Cloth Method.
  7. Prime the entire surface with 545 Primer (Spray) or Awl-Quik Epoxy Primers (Brush & Roll). Two to three coats may be needed. Allow to dry 12+ hours.
    Tip: Use care when applying this primer. If smoothly applied and all surfaces are adequately covered, it may be used as the final prime step.
Surface is ready for final prime and topcoat.


Back to top of pageSurface Preparation and Priming - Fiberglass/Gelcoat
Gelcoat/fiberglass surfaces are found in four basic forms:
  1. New gelcoat and aged gelcoat which is sound; basically free of any crazing, damage, or delamination.
  2. Aged gelcoat with minor crazing and oxidation but no major cracking, crazing, damage, or delamination.
  3. Heavily crazed, cracked, broken and delaminated surfaces.
  4. Raw fiberglass, laminating resin with no gelcoat.
Most projects involving molded fiberglass/gelcoat usually fall into categories 1.) or 2.) and require very little filling or fairing. Refinishing these surfaces can be accomplished with relatively simple systems of:
  • Cleaning and de-waxing the surface.
  • Sanding the surface.
  • Applying 545 Primer or Awl-Quik Primer.
  • Topcoat application.
Surface conditions described in catagories 3.) or 4.) require more extensive attention to abrading the surface and the use of fairing and surfacing products.

Heavily crazed and damaged surfaces require thorough inspection and removal of all damaged or deteriorated materials. Cracking and crazing caused by excessive flexing of the surface may require structural reinforcement to reduce the flexing. Deep crazing and cracking must be ground out before filling to change the dynamics of the working surfaces. Just filling and painting over cracking and crazing usually results in the defect quickly "printing through" in the new finish.

Raw laminating resin is very hard and slick compared to pigmented gelcoats and fairing compounds.

Both polyester or epoxy resins must be washed with household cleanser and water before sanding or grinding. Washing removes mold release materials, un-reacted styrene on polyester surfaces and amine residue on epoxy resins.

Raw fiberglass resin must be ground with 36-60 grit sand paper until 100% of the surface is dull, with a 36-60 grit surface profile. Allowing even small spots of un-sanded resin in the weave of the fiber strands can lead to adhesion failures.

Fiberglass repairs often have an extra layer of laminating resin applied to give the repair a smoother finish. This allows easy sanding without exposing the fiberglass itself.

Even though these areas may appear fair and true it is important to give them the full 36-60 grit grind to ensure good adhesion of the coating system.

Refinishing heavily crazed, broken, delaminated surfaces, or raw laminating resin requires more steps involving more products:
  • Cleaning and de-waxing the surface.
  • Sanding/grinding the surface.
  • Applying primer to the surface.
  • Fairing with Awl-Fair L.W.
  • Applying High Build or Ultra-Build Surfacers.
  • Sealing with 545 Primer.
  • Topcoat application.
This section provides detailed instructions for surface preparation and priming of gelcoat and fiberglass.

This first system covers new and sound, aged surfaces. The second is for heavily crazed/damaged surfaces and raw laminating resins.

Gelcoat/Fiberglass System I. New and Sound Aged Surfaces Preparation and Priming
Removal of all surface contamination (waxes, mold release products, dirt, grease, oil, and mildew) is imperative to insure adhesion of the new Awlgrip Coatings Systems.

Sanding the surface with sandpaper does not remove wax or other contamination. Sanding spreads the contamination from one area to another. The heat generated by the sanding melts wax and other contamination into pores in the surface.
  1. The surface must be clean and free of any waxes or mold release compounds before beginning any other work.
    De-wax with Awl-Prep Plus T0115 using the Two Cloth Method. Thoroughly scrub with commercial detergent or powdered household cleanser. Then rinse with fresh water until a break-free rinse is obtained. Allow to dry. Some surfaces may need a second application of T0115 and additional scrubbing. Be sure to rinse thoroughly.
  2. Inspect the surface for pinholes and small scratches. Mark the imperfections with a pencil. Do not use a felt tip marker.
  3. Sand out and feather any scratches or dings with 80 grit paper. Sand any raw resin until completely dull.
  4. Brush prime these areas with 545 Primer or Awl-Quik Primer.
  5. Scratch sand primed spots with 150 grit.
  6. Fill scratches, gouges, and dings with Awl-Fair L.W. Allow to cure 12+ hours.
    Caution: If polyester putties are used, they should be kept to an absolute minimum. Only use polyester putties for pinholes and very slight scratches or dings. Polyester putties shrink and distort rapidly. Epoxy fillers are much more stable.
  7. Block sand the filled areas leaving a smooth, level surface.
  8. Smooth sand the entire surface with 100-150 grit to remove all gloss from the previous finish. Feather any dents, dings, or scratches. Sanding must be thorough enough to remove all gloss from the gelcoat, all oxidized gelcoat, and any light crazing in the surface. However, do not over-sand. This needlessly exposes porosity in the gelcoat which will require extra materials and labor to fill.
  9. Prime the entire surface with 545 Primer (spray) or Awl-Quik Epoxy Primers (brush & roll). Allow to cure 12+ hours.
    Tip: Use care when applying this primer. If smoothly applied and all surfaces are adequately covered, it may be used as the final prime step.
System II. Surfaces with heavily crazed, cracked, broken, delaminated gelcoat, and raw laminating resin.
  1. Thoroughly scrub with commercial detergent or powdered household cleanser. Then rinse with fresh water until a break-free rinse is obtained. Allow to dry.
  2. Inspect heavily crazed areas or damaged areas for excessive flexing or structural damage. Make structural reinforcements and fiberglass repairs as needed.
  3. Remove heavily crazed, broken and delaminated gelcoat or fiberglass laminate.
  4. Thoroughly grind out damaged areas with a 36-60 grit disk. Heavy crazing must be completely removed. Grind raw resin areas with 36-60 grit sand paper.
  5. Prime these repair areas with 545 Primer. Two or three coats may be needed. Allow to dry 12+ hours.
    OR:
    For heavily damaged areas and all areas where 36 grit paper was used, prime with High Build Epoxy Primer. Reduce the first coat of High Build Epoxy 25% by volume with T0006 Reducer. Two to three coats may be required.
  6. Sand primed areas with 80 grit paper.
  7. Blow off the surface with clean, dry compressed air while dry wiped with clean rags to remove sanding dust and residue.
Note: The repair areas are ready for fairing and surfacing. This will include application of some or all of the following products:
  • High Build Epoxy Primer
  • Ultra Build Epoxy Primer
  • Sprayable Fairing Compound
  • Awl-Fair L.W. Trowelable Fairing Compound
  • Awl-Quik Sanding Surfacer.
Details of the application of these products begins later in this chapter

After the fairing and surfacing is completed all areas of sound surface must be cleaned, sanded, and primed and prepped before applying a topcoat.

Surface is now ready for final priming and topcoating.


Back to top of pageSurface Preparation and Priming - Aluminum
This section contains five systems for the preparation and priming of aluminum surfaces. The systems are:
  1. Aluminum to be heavily faired, where Alumiprep 33 Acid Cleaner and Alodine 1201 Chrome Conversion Coating will not be used.
  2. Aluminum to be heavily faired, where Alumiprep 33 and Alodine 1201 will be used.
  3. Aluminum which requires little or no fairing. Alumiprep 33 and Alodine 1201 will be used.
  4. Repair of blisters caused by corrosion on previously painted aluminum.
  5. Anodized parts where Alumiprep 33 and Alodine 1201 cannot be used. No fairing required.
These systems are designed to provide maximum performance of the coating system with allowances and adjustments for facility and engineering limitations.

Alumiprep 33 and Alodine 1201 can create an excellent anti-corrosive base for a paint system. However, both products are very aggressive acids which require very careful handling and a thorough assessment of the project before they are used. There are many situations where the use of these products is not practical.

In these situations blasting or grinding the aluminum to remove oxidation, creating clean, bright, shiny aluminum with an appropriate profile will provide excellent performance. The key here is priming the surface immediately after completing the blast or grind; before the aluminum can re-oxidize.

The system for blister repairs on previously painted surfaces specifically takes into account difficulties in obtaining perfect surface preparation in these situations.

System I. Aluminum - Full Fairing System
No Alumiprep 33 & Alodine 1201 Acid Treatments are used in this system.
  1. Thoroughly clean and degrease the surface. Use commercial detergents, steam cleaners or pressure washers. Be sure all detergent residue is rinsed from the surface. Use Awl-Prep Plus as a final wipe down of the surface.

    Important: Plan your work schedule carefully! Any area which is ground or blasted per Step 2 must be primed per Step 3 during the same work shift. Products in Step 4 must be applied within 24 hours of the completion of Step 3 or the surface will have to be sanded and Step 3 repeated.
  2. Grind with 36 grit paper and/or sand blast thoroughly to bright, clean aluminum. The metal must be bright silver, completely free of gray oxidation. The surface profile will be 4-6 mils (100-150 microns).

    Blow off the surface thoroughly with clean, dry, compressed air to remove all blast/grind residue and any dust or dirt. Use a brush or broom if necessary.

    Caution: Do not use rags to clean this surface. The sharp metal will snag fibers from the rags. These fibers can act as wicks for moisture or other contamination to enter the paint film. This can lead to premature failure of the Awlgrip Coating System.

    Proceed to Step 3 within 4 hours.
  3. Spray apply 30-Y-94TM Mil Spec Anti-Corrosive Epoxy Primer. Apply one full wet coat to approximately 3-4 mils (75-100 microns) wet film thickness to achieve 0.6-0.9 mils (15-23 microns) dry film thickness. Allow to cure 2 to 4 hours.

    Note: If chromated primer cannot be used; prime with 545 Gray (D1001/D3001). Two coats will be needed. Allow to cure 12+ hours.

    Caution: Do not use a roller to apply either primer. See previous caution regarding wicks.
  4. Spray apply High Build Epoxy Primer-Yellow (D9002/D3002). Apply two heavy coats. Allow at least one hour between coats.
Surface is now ready for fairing and surfacing.

System II. Aluminum - Full Fairing System
Using: Alumiprep 33 & Alodine 1201 Acid Treatments

Only use this system IF:
  • Conditions will allow complete rinsing of the Alumiprep 33 and Alodine 1201.
  • Facilities are in place for proper disposal of waste generated by the use of these products.
  • Applicators have the proper personal protective equipment for worker protection.
Do not apply Alumiprep 33 or Alodine 1201 with paint spray equipment.
  1. Thoroughly clean and degrease the surface. Use commercial detergents, steam cleaners, or pressure washers. Be sure all detergent residue is rinsed from the surface. Use Awl-Prep Plus for a final wipe down of the surface.

    Important: Plan your work schedule carefully! Surfaces treated with Alumiprep 33 in Step 3 must be immediately treated with Alodine 1201. Products in Step 5 must be applied within 24 hours of completion of Step 4 or the surface will have to be sanded and Step 4 repeated.
  2. Grind with 36 grit paper and/or sand blast thoroughly to bright, clean aluminum. The metal must be bright silver, completely free of gray oxidation. The surface profile will be 4-6 mils (100-140 microns).

    Blow off the surface with clean, dry, compressed air to remove all blast/grind residue and any dust or dirt. Use a brush or broom if necessary.

    Caution: Do not use rags to clean this surface. The sharp metal will snag fibers from the rags. These fibers can act as wicks for moisture or other contamination to enter the paint film. This can lead to premature failure of the Awlgrip Coating System.
  3. Alumiprep 33 & Alodine 1201
    Application of Alumiprep 33
    Dilute 1 part Alumiprep 33 with 3 parts water. Apply Alumiprep 33 using Scotchbrite pads or acid resistant brushes. Start at the bottom of the surface and work up to the top.

    Allow the Alumiprep 33 to work for 2 to 5 minutes, then rinse thoroughly with clean water. The rinse should sheet out over the entire surface with no breaks or holes in the water. This indicates a totally clean surface.

    Caution: Do not allow the Alumiprep 33 solution to dry on the surface. Crystalline salts will form which will cause corrosion. If the Alumiprep 33 dries on the surface, re-wet the surface with fresh Alumiprep 33. Rescrub and rinse the surface thoroughly with water. Repeat until a break-free rinse is obtained.

    Application of Alodine 1201

    While the surface is still wet from rinsing the Alumiprep 33, immediately apply Alodine 1201. Do not dilute. Apply full strength with acid resistant brushes. Start at the bottom of the surface and work up to the top. This will avoid streaking or burning of the surface. Allow to react 2 to 3 minutes. The surface should be a light gold/tan color. Rinse thoroughly with water. The rinse water should sheet out with no breaks or holes in the rinse.

    Caution: Do not allow the Alodine 1201 to dry on the surface prior to rinsing. Should drying occur, recleaning with Alumiprep 33 may be necessary to remove the dark brown burn/stain and the Alodine 1201 residue. This residue can cause corrosion and premature adhesion failure of the coatings system. Repeat procedure until proper color and a break-free rinse is obtained.

    After the rinse is complete, blow the water out of the seams, joints, and crevices with clean, dry, compressed air. Allow the surface to dry completely.

    The treated surface should be primed as soon as possible after the surface is completely dry. Always prime before fairing.

    Do not use Zinc Chromate Wash Primer (G9072/G3014) to prime an Alodine treated surface.
  4. 4. Spray apply 30-Y-94TM Mil Spec Anti-Corrosive Epoxy Primer. Apply one full wet coat to approximately 3-4 mils (75-100 microns) wet film thickness to achieve 0.6-0.9 mils (13-23 microns) dry film thickness. Allow to cure 2 to 4 hours.
    Caution: Do not use a roller to apply the primer. See previous caution regarding wicks.
  5. 5. Spray apply High Build Epoxy Primer (D9002/D3002). Apply two heavy coats. Allow at least one hour between coats.
Surface is now ready for fairing and surfacing.

System III. Aluminum fast re-coat system for masts, spars, equipment, and accessories that are mounted above deck. No filling or fairing.

Using Alumiprep 33 & Alodine 1201 Acid Treatments

Only use this system IF:
  1. Conditions will allow complete rinsing of the Alumiprep 33 and Alodine 1201.
  2. Facilities are in place for proper disposal of waste generated by the use of these products.
  3. Applicators have the proper personal protective equipment for worker protection.
  4. Extra care must be taken to rinse the interior of masts/spars and other hollow fabrications. All Alumiprep 33 and Alodine 1201 residue must be rinsed from these surfaces.
  5. Dried residue of Alumiprep 33 and Alodine 1201 in the interior of these fabrications can cause serious corrosion problems.
Do not apply Alumiprep 33 or Alodine 1201 with paint spray equipment.

Note: Anodized parts should be lightly sanded with 220 grit paper to "break" the anodized surface to insure acceptance of the Alumiprep 33/Alodine 1201 treatment. Remove sanding dust/residue before beginning Alumiprep 33/Alodine 1201 acid treatments.
  1. Thoroughly clean and degrease the surface. Use commercial detergents, steam cleaners, or pressure washers. Be sure all detergent residue is rinsed from the surface. Use Awl-Prep Plus for a final wipe down of the surface.

    Important: Plan your work schedule carefully! Surfaces treated with Alumiprep 33 in Step 2 must be immediately treated with Alodine 1201.
  2. Alumiprep 33 & Alodine 1201
    Application of Alumiprep 33
    Dilute 1 part Alumiprep 33 with 3 parts water. Apply Alumiprep 33 using Scotchbrite pads or acid resistant brushes. Start at the bottom of the surface and work up to the top.

    Allow the Alumiprep 33 to work for 2 to 5 minutes, then rinse thoroughly with clean water. The rinse should sheet out over the entire surface with no breaks or holes in the water. This indicates a totally clean surface.

    Caution: Do not allow the Alumiprep 33 solution to dry on the surface. Crystalline salts will form which will cause corrosion. If the Alumiprep 33 dries on the surface, re-wet the surface with fresh Alumiprep 33. Rescrub and rinse the surface thoroughly with water. Repeat until a break-free rinse is obtained.

    Alumiprep 33 & Alodine 1201 Acid Treatments
    Application of Alodine 1201

    While the surface is still wet from rinsing the Alumiprep 33, immediately apply Alodine 1201. Do not dilute. Apply full strength with acid resistant brushes. Start at the bottom of the surface and work up to the top. This will avoid streaking or burning of the surface. Allow to react 2 to 3 minutes. The surface should be a light gold/tan color. Rinse thoroughly with water. The rinse water should sheet out with no breaks or holes in the rinse.

    Caution: Do not allow the Alodine 1201 to dry on the surface prior to rinsing. Should drying occur, re-cleaning with Alumiprep 33 may be necessary to remove the dark brown burn/stain and the Alodine 1201 residue. This residue can cause corrosion and premature adhesion failure of the coatings system. Repeat procedure until proper color and a break-free rinse is obtained.

    After the rinse is complete, blow the water out of the seams, joints, and crevices with clean, dry, compressed air. Allow the surface to dry completely.

    The treated surface should be primed as soon as possible after the surface is completely dry. Always prime before fairing.

    Do not use Zinc Chromate Wash Primer (G9072/G3014) to prime an Alodine treated surface.
  3. Spray apply 30-Y-94TM Mil Spec Anti-Corrosive Epoxy Primer. Apply one full wet coat to approximately 3-4 mils (75-100 microns) wet film thickness to achieve 0.6-0.9 mils (13-23 microns) dry film thickness.
An Awlgrip Topcoat can be applied within 2 to 24 hours after application of the 30-Y-94TM. If more than 24 hours elapse, the 30-Y-94TM will have to be sanded and Step 3 repeated before topcoating.

System IV. Aluminum - Blister Repair
This system is for repairing corrosion related blistering on both heavily faired surfaces and surfaces with little or no fairing, where obtaining ideal surface preparation and profile is not feasible. The intact coatings around the repair area must be tested for adhesion and compatibility with the Awlgrip Coating Systems. See Previously Painted Surfaces for details of these tests.

On heavily faired surfaces this system should be limited to repairs one square foot or less of bare metal. Repairs exposing more than one square foot of bare metal are indicators of serious problems in the paint system. Proper repair would require removal of large areas of the coating system and preparation per System I.

After completion of the repairs, the blistered areas and surrounding sound surfaces would be prepared and primed per "Previously Painted Surfaces".

Note: Corrosion and the resultant blistering is often caused by construction features such as stitch welded attachment of rails and brackets, contact of dissimilar metals at hardware attachments, and improperly grounded electrical systems. Repairs which only address the blister and not the root cause of the blisters, usually result in reoccurrence of the blister in the same area.

A detailed condition report should be written for those responsible for the yacht's maintenance. With the report, the owner or owner's representative can make an informed decision on how extensive the repair process should be.
  1. Thoroughly clean and degrease the surface. Use commercial detergents, steam cleaners, or pressure washers. Be sure all detergent residue is rinsed from the surface. Use Awl-Prep Plus for a final wipe down of the surface.
  2. Grind with a 36 to 60 grit disk to remove blistered materials. Grind until all loose materials are removed and you reach a hard, tightly bound edge to the paint system. Then bevel/feather the edge of the repair at a 6 to 1 ratio. The slope of the repair must be at least 6 times the depth.

    If more than one square foot of bare metal is exposed, regrind the areas with a 36 grit disk until a hard, tightly bound edge is obtained. Refer to System I page 20 for preparation and priming of this condition.
  3. On areas where fairing will be needed: Grind bare metal with a 36 to 60 grit disk until bright, silver metal is obtained. After grinding, remove corrosion from pits by spot blasting.

    3b. On smooth, unfilled areas, clean the metal bright using 120-180 grit paper. Spot sand blasting may be necessary to remove corrosion from pits.

    Blow off surface thoroughly to remove grinding/blasting residue, dust, and dirt. Use a brush or broom if necessary. Do not use rags.
  4. Apply Zinc Chromate Wash Primer (G9072/G3014) by brush or spray to the bare metal. Apply one very thin coat of 1 mil (25 microns) wet film to achieve 0.2 to 0.3 mils (5 to 7.5 microns) of dry film. Do not apply a thicker film or second coat without sanding off the first coat. Thick films of Zinc Chromate Wash Primer will split and peel. This coating is transparent.

    Allow to cure 2 hours but not more than 6 hours. If Zinc Chromate Wash Primeris not recoated within 6 hours, it must be sanded and reapplied before proceeding.

    For thin film applications go to Step 5, for heavily faired areas go to Step 5b.
  5. For thin film, no fairing systems--masts, spars, window frames, and other smooth, cast or extruded parts:

    Apply one or two coats of 545 Primer to cover the Zinc Chromate Wash Primerand the feathered edge of the existing, sound paint system. After preparation of surrounding areas, the surface is now ready for Final Prime and Topcoat.

    Tip: Use care when applying this primer. If smoothly applied and all surfaces are adequately covered, it may be used as the final prime step.

    OR:

    5b. For heavily faired areas, apply one or two coats of High Build Yellow D9002/D3002 Epoxy Primer to cover the Zinc Chromate Wash Primerand the beveled slope of the existing paint system.

    Allow to cure 12+ hours.
The defect area can now be filled and faired to conform to the surrounding surface.

System V. Anodized Parts
Fast re-coat system for anodized masts, spars, equipment, and accessories that are mounted above deck. No filling or fairing.

Alumiprep 33 & Alodine 1201-Cannot Be Used

This is designed for the coating of smooth parts which required no fairing or filling. In almost all cases, using Alumiprep 33 and Alodine 1201 would provide a better system; this system is provided for situations where physical or regulatory restraints prevent their use.
  1. Thoroughly clean and degrease the surface. Use commercial detergents, steam cleaners, or pressure washers. Be sure all detergent residue is rinsed from the surface. Use Awl-Prep Plus for a final wipe down of the surface.

    Note: Anodized parts should be hand sanded with 180-220 grit paper to "break" the anodized surface to insure adhesion of the Zinc Chromate Wash Primer.
  2. Apply Zinc Chromate Wash Primer (G9072/G3014) by spray to the bare metal. Apply one very thin coat of 1 mil (25 microns) wet film to achieve 0.2 to 0.3 mils (5 to 7.5 microns) of dry film. Do not apply a thicker film or second coat without sanding off the first coat. Thick films of Zinc Chromate Wash Primer will split or peel. This coating is transparent.

    Allow to cure 2 hours but not more than 6 hours. If Zinc Chromate Wash Primeris not recoated within 6 hours, it must be sanded and reapplied before proceeding.

    Zinc Chromate Wash Primer could be brush applied on small parts or small areas; it would be very difficult to brush on an area of any substantial size.

    Do not apply 30-Y-94TM Primer over Zinc Chromate Wash Primer.
  3. Apply two coats of 545 Primer. Awl-Quik could be used for brush/roll applications.

    Tip: Use care in applying this primer. If smoothly applied and all surfaces are adequately covered, it may be used as the final prime step.
Surface is now ready for final prime and topcoat.


Back to top of pageSurface Preparation and Priming - Wood
Wooden boats seldom require any extensive filling or fairing. The
following surface preparation system is recommended for all but the most severe cases of deterioration on a wooden boat.

The Awlgrip Topcoat may crack over working seams and miters. If the paint on the boat is cracking, the seam will crack when painted with Awlgrip. The Awlgrip Topcoat may crack when previous coatings did not.

Awlgrip Corporation does not consider cracking over seams or miters a failure.

Surface Preparation & Priming:
  1. The wood must be clean, dry, and well seasoned. Never paint wet or green lumber. Painted wet or green lumber will blister. Sand the surface smooth with 80 to 100 grit paper.
  2. Blow off the surface with clean, dry, compressed air while wiping with clean rags to remove sanding dust and residue.
  3. Apply a light coat of 545 Primer or Awl-Quik to seams before applying a seam sealer. Allow 545 Primer or Awl-Quik to cure 4 to 6 hours.
  4. Fill seams with a high quality marine seam compound such as a polyurethane or polysulfide. This will move with the wood rather than crack and separate. On boats with working seams, this flexing may cause the Awlgrip coating to crack. Allow the sealer to thoroughly cure before proceeding.
  5. Seal the wood with a light coat of 545 Primer (spray) or Awl-Quik Primer (brush & roll).

    For the sealer coat, reduce the 545 Primer 40% with T0006 (spray). Reduce the Awl-Quik 50-70% with T0031 (brush & roll).

    Allow to cure 12-16 hours. If cured more than 24 hours, the seal coat must be lightly sanded with 180-220 grit paper before proceeding to Step 6.
  6. Apply 2-3 coats 545 Primer (spray) or Awl-Quik Primer (brush & roll). Allow to cure 12+ hours.
The surface is now ready for final priming and topcoating.

Note: The previous step may be a suitable "final prime" application with the surface now only requiring topcoat.


Back to top of pageSurface Preparation and Priming - Steel hot & cold rolled
  1. Thoroughly clean and degrease the surface. Use commercial detergents, steam cleaners or pressure washers. Be sure all detergent residue is rinsed from the surface. Use Awl-Prep Plus as a final wipe down of the surface.

    Important: Plan your work schedule carefully! Any area which is ground or blasted per Step 2 must be primed per Step 3 during the same work shift. Products in Step 4 must be applied within 24 hours of the completion of Step 3 or the surface will have to be sanded and Step 3 repeated.
  2. Sand blast to white metal in accordance with SSPC-SP5-85 to a 3 to 4 mil profile or power grind with a 16 to 36 disc to obtain profile. If profile is particularly jagged, grind to remove "spikes", providing a more uniform surface.

    Blow off the surface thoroughly with clean, dry, compressed air to remove all blast/grind residue and any dust or dirt. Use a brush or broom if necessary.

    Caution: Do not use rags to clean this surface. The sharp metal will snag fibers from the rags. These fibers can act as wicks for moisture or other contamination to enter the paint film. This can lead to premature failure of the Awlgrip Coating System.

    Proceed to Step 3 within 4 hours.
  3. Spray apply 30-Y-94TM Mil Spec Anti-Corrosive Epoxy Primer. Apply one full wet coat to approximately 3-4 mils (75-100 microns) wet film thickness to achieve 0.6-0.9 mils (15-23 microns) dry film thickness. Allow 30-Y-94TM to cure 2 hours (77°F, 50% R.H.) before proceeding to step 4.

    Note: If chromated primer cannot be used; prime with 545 Primer-Gray (D1001/D3001). Two coats will be needed. Allow 545 Primer cure 10 to 12 hours or overnight before proceeding to step 4.

    Caution: Do not use a roller to apply either primer. See previous caution in step 2. regarding creation of wicks.
  4. Spray apply High Build Epoxy Primer-Yellow (D9002/ D3002). Apply two heavy coats. Allow at least one hour between coats.
Surface is now ready for fairing and surfacing.

If no fairing or surfacing is needed, proceed to final prime and topcoat.


Back to top of pageFairing and Surfacing
Fairing and surfacing are similar activities with subtle but specific differences. Often both procedures will be used on the same project or surface.

In general fairing involves the use of trowel applied filler putties such as Awl-Fair L.W., which can be applied to virtually infinite film thickness. Fairing often involves creating a new line or shape to the surface, not just filling low areas or dents and dings.

Surfacing is usually accomplished through the use of liquid coatings which are relatively thick (viscous) products which will fill and cover scratches, dings, pinholes, light crazing, mold defects and other relatively minor physical defects on a surface or part which otherwise has a true or fair line. Awlgrip Corporation products which fit this description include Ultra-Build, Sprayable Fairing Compound, High Build Epoxy Primer, and Awl-Quik.

Above the waterline fairing and surfacing has four basic requirements:
  • Properly prepare and prime the surface with the recommended primer before starting any filling or fairing.
  • Start work with heavy fillers and proceed to lighter products. Make large depressions or low spots into smaller or more shallow areas as your work progresses.
  • Always sand between applications of Awl-Fair L.W.
  • Always seal the completed fairing/surfacing system with at least two full wet coats of 545 Primer before topcoating. 545 Primer seals the relatively porous, heavily filled surfacing materials. This sealing also provides uniform color holdout for the Awlgrip/Awlcraft 2000 Topcoats, thus a better looking job with uniform gloss, color, and appearance.
Warning: Do not use automotive body fillers, spot putties, lacquer glazing putties, or similar water sensitive products in fairing projects. These products are not designed for marine applications and will not adhere to Awl-Fair L.W. or Sprayable Fairing Compound.

Fairing Procedures
  1. Properly prepare and prime the surface. See surface preparation sections for each substrate for this information.

    It is recommended that two to three coats of High Build Epoxy Primer be applied over the primer on metal surfaces and other projects which will require extensive amounts of fairing.

    The High Build Epoxy Primer provides protection against sand throughs to the metal, plus after sanding it makes an excellent base on which to apply the Awl-Fair L.W.
  2. Examine the surface for highs and lows. Mark low areas with a pencil. Do not use felt tip markers or ink pens.
  3. Sand areas where Awl-Fair L.W. is to be applied with 80 grit paper. For heavy fairing projects where the Awl-Fair L.W. will be applied to High Build Epoxy Primer; sand the High Build with 60 to 80 grit paper.

    Blow off the surface with clean, dry compressed air while dry wiping with clean rags to remove sanding dust and residue.
  4. Fill all areas deeper than 20 mils (500 microns) with Awl-Fair L.W. Fairing Compound. Thoroughly mix the material to a uniform pink color with no streaks or lumps.

    Warning: Do not add reducers, solvents or thinners of any kind to Awl-Fair L.W.
  5. Apply Awl-Fair L.W. by trowel to an area you can work in 15 to 20 minutes. Start with thin coats in low areas and build out to high areas. Allow to cure. Several applications may be necessary to fill large areas. Block and machine sand with 36 to 80 grit paper. Blow off sanding dust and residue before applying more Awl-Fair L.W. Stop when the faired surface has a uniform surface which meets the fairing quality specified for the project.
Surfacing Procedures
Surfacing products in the Awlgrip line include Awl-Quik Sanding Surfacer, High Build Primer, Ultra-Build Primer, and Epoxy Sprayable Fairing Compound. Each product has unique characteristics which can help to make the surfacing process easier.

A typical full fairing and surfacing project may use the following schedule of products. Some areas may need extra applications and additional block sanding to achieve specified quality (i.e. under dark hulls). Other areas of a project may use only a few, one, or none of the products in the schedule. It is not required that all listed products be used.

It is required that all surfaces be properly prepared and sanded before applying the next product and no product be used beyond its recommended maximum dry film thickness.

After initial priming or application of Awl-Fair L.W.:
  • Sprayable Fairing Compound apply 2 to 3 coats. Allow at least 2 days (48 hours) to dry, then block sand with 60 to 100 grit paper.
  • Ultra-Build or High Build Primer, apply 2 coats. Allow to cure overnight (12 to 24 hours). Block or machine sand with 80 to 120 grit paper.
  • 545 Primer or Awl-Quik apply as necessary for spray or brush application to seal the fairing and surfacing products before topcoating.
Guide to selecting surfacing products
Awl-Quik (D8003/D9001) has twice the build per coat of 545 Primer. Awl-Quik dries fast, is easy to sand, and the easiest primer to brush. Can be used as both a sanding surfacer and as a finish primer in brush and roller applications. Will provide 2 to 3 mils of dry film.

High Build Epoxy Primer (D8002 Off White Base/D9002 Yellow Base/ D3002 Converter) has twice the build per coat as Awl-Quik. The yellow version is recommended for filling blast/grind profiles on metal surfaces. Cured product goes from medium-to-hard to sand after a few days of cure. Will provide 5 to 7 mils of dry film.

Sanded High Build is an excellent base for Awl-Fair L.W. on major fairing projects.

Ultra-Build (D8008/D3018) clean white color helps to start turning projects white. Can be applied to 15 to 20 mils dry film, double the fill of High Build per coat. Ultra-Build becomes very hard to sand after 48 to 96 hours of cure.

Epoxy Sprayable Fairing Compound (D6001/D3011). Builds at twice the film thickness per coat of Ultra-Build. Sprayable Fairing Compound often requires 2 to 3 days cure before it can be sanded. Easy to sand at extended cure. Mixed full body with no reducer, this product can be applied by trowel or knife to fill slight scratches or pinholes.

Epoxy Sprayable Fairing Compound must be overcoated with either Ultra-Build or High Build before 545 Primer or Awl-Quik could be applied as a final primer.

Only useEpoxy Sprayable Fairing Compound Compound for surfacing full panels. Do not use Epoxy Sprayable Fairing Compound when spot repairing. Tight time constrictions in spot repair schedules usually do not allow enough time for proper cure of the D6001/D3011. Use High Build or Ultra-Build on spot repair projects.


Back to top of pageFinal Priming and Topcoating
The final primer and application of the topcoat completes the coating system.

Primers and Sealers:
The final primer supplies a hard, tight film on which to apply the topcoat, sealing the more porous fairing or surfacing materials below it. This hard tight film supports the Awlgrip or Awlcraft 2000 Topcoat maximizing the gloss and distinction of image (D.O.I.).

For spray applications, 545 Primer is the recommended product for final priming and sealing. Awl-Quik is acceptable for use in brush and roll applications.

When painting fiberglass/gelcoat, wood, and smooth surfaced aluminum (masts, spars, etc.), there are many projects where no fairing or surfacing materials are used. In these cases the initial priming of the surface and the final priming can all be part of the same process. The only real distinction is which coat of primer is being applied.

Topcoats
The Awlgrip Premium Urethane Topcoat is a polyester based polyurethane coating which can be applied by spray, brush, roller or the roller/brush combination.

Regardless of application method it provides the toughest finish available to the pleasure craft industry.

Awlcraft 2000 is an acrylic based polyurethane coating designed only for spray application. It is designed for the yard, applicator, or owner who is willing to sacrifice a little durability to have a faster curing, more easily repaired finish.

A few points which apply to both the traditional Awlgrip finish and Awlcraft 2000.
  • Both products provide a tough, chemical, and abrasion resistant coating which has been proven to perform in the marine environment.
  • Both products require two coats minimum--regardless of application technique. Some applicators prefer to use three coats, and three coats may be the easier way to go with some colors, but two coats minimum are needed to obtain proper performance.
  • Do not clear coat over whites or pastels with either system. Each system has a clear available. For Awlgrip it is G3005 High Gloss Clear; for Awlcraft 2000 it is F3029. However, these products should only be used over dark colors.
Application of Final Primer
  1. Sand the surface smooth with 120-220 grit paper. Grit choice will be determined by condition and make up of the surface.
  2. Blow off the surface with clean, dry, compressed air while dry wiping with clean rags to remove sanding dust and residue.

    Then wipe with Awl-Prep T0008 using the Two Cloth Method.
  3. Tack off the surface with Awlgrip Tack Rags #73009.
  4. Spray Application
    Apply two to three coats of 545 Primer. Allow at least one hour between coats. Allow the surface to dry 12 to 24 hours.

    Brush/Roll Application
    Apply two coats of 545 Primer or two coats of Awl-Quik Sanding Surfacer. Allow 12 to 24 hours between coats. Sanding between coats with 220-280 grit paper will give a smoother finish.

    Note: Awl-Quik is easier to apply by brush/roll than 545 Primer. However, 545 Primer will provide a more durable system.
  5. Sand the entire primed surface with 220-400 grit paper to a smooth, flat finish. Blow off the surface with clean, dry, compressed air while dry wiping to remove sanding dust and residue.
  6. Solvent wipe with Awl-Prep using the Two Cloth Method. Repeat process as necessary until the surface is completely clean. Allow the surface to dry.
  7. Tack off the surface with Awlgrip Tack Rags.
Finish Coat Application

Spray Application - Awlgrip
Mix equal parts by volume Awlgrip Color Base and Awl-Cat #2 Spray Converter. Reduce 25% with the appropriate reducer for the application conditions.

Spray Application - Awlcraft 2000
Mix two parts by volume Awlcraft 2000 Color Base with one part Awl-Cat #2 Spray Converter. Reduce 25% with the appropriate reducer for the application conditions.

Using recommended spray equipment, apply a light, smooth, slightly wet tack coat to the surface. Allow tack coat to "flash off" 30 to 45 minutes.

Then apply a full, wet coverage coat to achieve color coverage (i.e., hide) and film thickness requirements.

If preferred, three coats may be used. Allow the second coat to "flash off" 30 to 45 minutes until only slightly tacky before applying third coat.

Topcoating cannot be done in one coat.

Brush/Roll
Mix Awlgrip Color Base with Awl-Cat #3 Brushing Converter. Reduce 25% to 35% with Brushing Reducer.

Apply Awlgrip Topcoat in two coats* of 1.5 to 2.5 mils WFT each. Allow 12 to 14 hours between each coat.

*Depending on film thickness applied and color choice, one or possibly two additional coats may be needed.

Topcoating cannot be done in one coat.

Sanding between coats with 280-400 grit paper will provide a smoother finish.

After sanding, blow off sanding dust and residue while dry wiping. Solvent wipe with Awl-Prep using the Two Cloth Method. Tack off the surface with Awlgrip Tack Rags.

On large surfaces such as hull sides, transoms, and house sides, first roll the Awlgrip Topcoat and then smooth the roller stipple by lightly tipping the surface with a brush. This can be done with 2 painters working side by side (i.e., 1 rolling and 1 tipping), or with 1 painter rolling approximately 6 square feet and then tipping that area before rolling any further.


Back to top of pageBrightwork
Reducing brightwork maintenance without sacrificing aesthetics or cosmetics has been an elusive goal.

To paraphrase the old business axiom, price-service-quality, pick any two. The three goals for brightwork: easy application, classic appearance, long term durability/low maintenance have been difficult to obtain.

Awlgrip Corporation offers two products and three systems tailored to meet varying tastes, concerns, and performance requirements for brightwork finishes.

Traditional Varnish System - Awlspar Classic Spar Varnish
Awlspar Varnish, M3131, is a traditional phenolic, tung oil varnish modified with state of the art UV inhibitors and absorbers.

Awlspar is a fast-dry material. Two and sometimes even three coats can be applied in a single day, allowing you to quickly apply a full system, reducing varnish down time.

Awlspar is the perfect product for the traditionalist who wants an easy to apply, easy to repair product, and doesn't object to regular maintenance coats.

Awlspar/Awl-Brite Ultimate Brightwork System
This system combines the color highlights of the Awlspar Varnish to provide a traditional look, with the durability of the Awl-Brite in a fast recoat, relatively easy to repair combination of varnish and urethane coatings.

Early efforts at combining spar varnish and urethane coatings had a number of limitations.
  1. First the varnishes were very slow to cure--sometimes as long as 60 days were required between the last application of varnish and the first application of a urethane coating.
  2. The urethane coatings available at the time would not bond to bare wood, so the wood had to be totally covered by varnish.
  3. The urethane coatings, such as Awlgrip G3005 Clear, were very slow to dry. Only one coat could be applied per day, and eight or more coats were needed.
While these systems had the potential to provide exceptional service, they were tedious to apply and nightmares to repair. Systems involving epoxy resins and Awlgrip Clear G3005, had flexibility problems, with similar repair headaches.

The fast cure of Awlspar and the low solvent content of the Awl-Brite eliminates the 30-60 day wait between varnish and urethane.

Both products allow two or more coats per day. The Ultimate System can be applied in seven to ten days. This union of Awlspar and Awl-Brite allows you to have all three: Easy application, traditional appearance, long term durability/low maintenance.

Varnishing Tips
  • Coating brightwork requires the same basic conditions as other paint work. Surfaces to be coated must be clean and dry.
  • Use good quality, natural bristle varnish brushes. Natural bristle badger hair brushes are best. Thoroughly "wetting" the bristles before applying material helps prevent bubbles in the film.
  • When applying Awl-Brite or Awlspar Varnish, never use a brush that has been used to apply paint or primers.
  • Mix and use small quantities of Awlspar or Awl-Brite at a time. Keep the original containers covered when not in use.
  • Do not shake Awl-Brite or Awlspar. Shaking creates air bubbles in the material. When adding converter to Awl-Brite or reducer to Awlspar, hand stir only.
  • Apply Awl-Brite or Awlspar in shaded, well ventilated areas. Optimum application temperatures are between 70F and 90F.
  • Avoid applying Awl-Brite to hot surfaces or in direct sunlight. Excessive heat blisters the coating and makes it difficult to carry a wet edge. A surface that is warm to the touch, above 105F/38C, is generally too hot to paint.
  • Do not apply these products if temperatures are below 65°F.
  • Do not move coated items into direct sunlight to dry. Direct sunlight will inhibit flow and may result in blisters.
  • Do not apply Awl-Brite or Awlspar when dew can form on the surface in the first 6 hours of cure. Be sure all surfaces are completely free of moisture before applying Awl-Brite or Awlspar.
  • Completely remove all sanding dust and residue. All surfaces should be cleaned with Awl-Prep before and after sanding.
Apply light, smooth coats. Heavier coats will not flow as well as light coats. Heavy coats are also more prone to solvent popping and blistering. When in doubt, put on a lighter coat.

Awl-Brite and Awlspar should be compatible with most conventional, oil based, penetrating wood stains. Apply a test patch of Awl-Brite or Awlspar to the stained wood to check for compatibility before continuing a project of any size. Stains should be applied according to the manufacturer's recommendations.

Surface Preparation
The wood should be clean, dry, smooth, and well seasoned.

Use of a marine teak cleaner or wood bleach is advised on new wood to remove excess oils, promote color uniformity, and adhesion. Follow the manufacturer's instructions for use and thoroughly remove all cleaner and neutralizer residue before proceeding.

Rough sawn lumber must receive heavy sanding to level the grain. Sand with 3M Production (Brown) sandpaper. The 3M Gold or Tri-M-ite type sandpapers may leave a white stain. Work through the grits to effectively level the grain 60/80 to 100/150 to 220, and so on. When the grain is level, smooth sand the surface with 320 grit paper.

Remove all sanding dust and residue. Wipe the surface with Awl-Prep T0008.

Select a brightwork system from information on following pages.

System I. Traditional Varnish System

New/Bare Wood
  1. Apply one, light, smooth coat of Awlspar M3131 mixed 1:1 by volume with Awlspar Reducer T0016. Allow to dry 8-12 hours.
  2. Lightly sand the surface with 320-400 grit paper to remove wicks and nubs. Remove sanding dust and residue. Tack off with Awlgrip #73009 Tack Rags.
  3. Apply light, smooth, even coats of Awlspar M3131 two to four hours apart. Above 75°F, two to three coats may be applied per day.
  4. Repeat this process until the grain is filled and covered, six to eight coats may be needed. Keep sanding to a minimum. The only reason to sand is to remove obvious defects, or if more than 24 to 36 hours elapse between applications. The goal is to fill and cover the grain with varnish.

    A light rub with a Scotchbrite pad is often enough to break the glaze of the previous coat, providing sufficient adhesion for subsequent coats.

    Tip: Avoid holidays and make it easier to see the wet edge by dulling the surface with a white or green Scotchbrite pad between coats. Rub the surface just enough to noticeably lower the gloss. This minimizes coating removal and dust while making it easier to see holidays and locate your wet edge when applying a glossy clear to a glossy surface.
  5. When the grain is completely filled and covered, lightly sand the surface smooth with 400-500 grit paper. Apply one coat of Awlspar M3131 to restore gloss to the sanded surface.
System II. High Solids Vanish System - AWL®SPAR H.S. Marine Varnish
AWL®SPAR H.S., M3146, allows more build per coat with maximum gloss and durability. This improvement creates a product with higher solids and less solvent (VOC).

New/Bare Wood
The wood should be clean, dry (less than 15% moisture content), smooth and well seasoned. Use of a marine teak cleaner or wood bleach is advised on new wood to remove excess oils, promote color uniformity, and adhesion. Follow manufacturer's instructions for use and thoroughly remove all cleaner and neutralizer residue before proceeding.

Existing Finishes
Old finishes in good condition should be washed with AWL®PREP 400 Wipe Down Solvent (T0170), then sanded with 220-320 grit paper to remove the gloss. Old finishes in poor condition should be removed. Test on a small area to make sure AWLSPAR H.S. does not attack the old finish. If the old finish is attacked, it must be completed removed.
  1. Reduce the first coat 100% by volume with either T0180 for spray application or T0016 for brush application. This reduction will allow the M3146 to penetrate into the wood and seal the surface. Example: 8 oz. M3146 and 8 oz. T0180 or T0016.
  2. Apply one light, smooth coat of AWLSPAR H.S. M3146 (reduced as above).
  3. Allow to dry 8-12 hours. Lightly sand the surface with 320-400 grit paper to remove wicks and nubs. Remove sanding dust and residue. Tack off with AWLGRIP 73009 Tack Rags. (For a fast drying clear wood grain filler, seal bare wood with AWL®BRITE QUIK-FIL Clear J3901/J3209 - 4 coats minimum).
  4. Spray: Reduce up to 25% by volume with T0180. Example 8 oz. M3146 and 2 oz. T0180. Brush/Roll: Additional reduction is not normally required. If a thinner material is desired, reduce as needed with T0016.
  5. Apply a light, smooth coat of M3146. Apply one coat per day.
          a. If using M3146 as a base for AWL®BRITE Clear Urethane, apply 2 to 3 coats and allow
              the system to cure for seven days (minimum) before proceeding.
          b. If building the M3146 as a stand alone coating, repeat this process until the grain is filled
              and covered, 6 to 8 coats may be needed. Keep sanding to a minimum. A light rub with a
              Scotchbrite® pad is often enough to break the glaze of the previous coat,
              providing sufficient adhesion for subsequent coats.
  6. When the grain is completely filled and covered, lightly sand the surface smooth with 400-500 grit paper. Apply one coat of AWLSPAR H.S. to restore gloss to the sanded surface. A good system would include a minimum of 6 to 8 coats. Exact number of coats needed will vary by applied film thickness and the amount of sanding.
Best results are achieved when temperatures are between 65°F (18°C) and 95°F (35°C). Do not apply M3146 to surfaces warmer than 95°F (35°C) or less than 65°F (18°C).

System II. Low Maintenance Urethane System Featuring Awl-Brite

New/Bare Wood
The key to performance of any varnish system is applying enough material. This is especially true with Awl-Brite Clear Urethane.

These directions call for more coats than needed to achieve basic cosmetic qualities. If you stop the system when it looks good, or sand excessively, you will not achieve the desired performance.
  1. Mix by volume 2 parts J3005 Base with 1 part J3006 Converter and 1/2 part A0031. A suggested mix is 4 oz. J3005 + 2 oz. J3006 + 1 oz. A0031= 7 oz. total. Additional A0031 can be added to help maintain a wet edge in warm weather, but the standard mix of 2:1:1/2 is required for proper cure. Mix only enough for one sealer coat. Apply one thin coat, allow to cure 8-12 hours.
  2. Lightly sand the surface with 320-400 grit paper to remove any wicks or nubs. Remove sanding dust and residue. Tack off with Awlgrip #73009 Tack Rags.
  3. Apply light, even coats of Awl-Brite. Allow a minimum of 3 to 4 hours between coats. Above 80F apply as many as 3 coats per day. Allow to cure 8 to 12 hours.
  4. Repeat this process until the grain is filled and covered, 8 to 10 coats may be needed. Keep sanding to a minimum. The only reason to sand is to remove obvious defects, or more than 36 hours have elapsed between applications. The goal is to fill and cover the grain with Awl-Brite.

    A light rub with a Scotchbrite pad is often enough to break the glaze of the previous coat, providing sufficient adhesion for subsequent coats. If you sand, use 400 grit paper or finer.

    Tip: Avoid holidays and make it easier to see the wet edge by dulling the surface with a white or green Scotchbrite pad between coats. Rub the surface just enough to noticeably lower the gloss. This minimizes coating removal and dust while making it easier to see holidays and locate your wet edge when applying a glossy clear to a glossy surface.

    When the grain is filled and covered allow to cure 8 to 12 hours. Total DFT must be 10 to 12 mils.
  5. Lightly sand the surface with 400-500 grit paper. Remove sanding dust and residue. Tack off with Awlgrip #73009 Tack Rags.
  6. Apply two light, finish coats of Awl-Brite, The coating will be ready for light service in 12 hours.

    For the finest smoothness and gloss, or to remove imbedded dust particles in the final coat, dry and hard Awl-Brite can be buffed with a fine grade of polishing compound. When buffing or polishing, use care not to remove excessive amounts of film. Use less effort near sharp edges and miters, the coating is generally thinnest in these areas.
--> System III. Ultimate Brightwork System Awlspar/ Awl-Brite
This system primes and seals the wood with Awlspar Varnish. The Awlspar bonds to the wood and supplies the traditional amber cast of fine varnish systems.

Then the Awlspar is sealed with a full system of Awl-Brite Clear Urethane.

Important: Test applications must be made over the Awlspar Varnish before applying the Awl-Brite.

At a constant 75F or higher around the clock, the Awlspar will need to cure approximately 72 hours before the Awl-Brite can be applied. At 65°F it may be 7 to 10 days before the Awl-Brite can be applied.

The key to performance of a varnish system is applying enough material. This is especially true with Awl-Brite Clear Urethane.

This system calls for more coats than is necessary to achieve initial cosmetic qualities. If you stop the system when it looks good, or sand excessively, you will not achieve the desired performance.

New/Bare Wood
Application of Awlspar Varnish
  1. Apply one, light, smooth coat of Awlspar M3131 mixed 1:1 by volume with Awlspar Reducer T0016. Allow to dry 8-12 hours.
  2. Lightly sand the surface with 320-400 grit paper to remove wicks and nubs. Remove sanding dust and residue. Tack off with Awlgrip #73009 Tack Rags.
  3. Apply 2 to 3 smooth coats of Awlspar M3131. Use the Awlspar full-bodied or with as little reducer as possible.

    Allow to cure a minimum of 72 hours at constant, around the clock temperature of 75F or above before proceeding. At lower temperatures, 7 to 10 days may be needed.
  4. Test Application of Awl-Brite
    Lightly sand the Awlspar with 320-400 grit paper. The Awlspar should powder sand, if it is still gummy or clogs the paper, stop and allow the Awlspar to cure longer. Re-check every 24-48 hours until the surface will powder sand.

    After sanding, remove sanding dust and residue, and tack off approximately two square feet.

    Mix enough Awl-Brite to coat this area. Apply two light smooth coats about 3-4 hours apart. If during the application of either coat you experience:
    • Excessive brush drag.
    • Blistering.
    • Bubbling.
    • Crazing or cracking;
    Stop the application and allow the materials to cure 24-48 hours before attempting the test again.

    After the test area has been coated, with none of the above mentioned problems, allow the Awl-Brite to cure 24 hours at 65°F or higher.
  5. Inspect the test application area. The coating should be smooth and glossy with no blisters, bubbles, crazing, cracking, solvent pop, or pin holes.

    If the coating appears satisfactory, lightly sand the test area and the rest of the Awlspar with 320-400 grit paper.

    If the test area is not satisfactory, repeat the test application on another area until satisfactory results are obtained.
    After sanding the entire surface, remove the sanding dust and residue, and tacking off with Awlgrip #73009 Tack Rags, proceed to step 6.
  6. Apply light, even coats of Awl-Brite. Allow a minimum of 3 to 4 hours between coats. Above 80F apply as many as 3 coats per day. Allow to cure 8 to 12 hours.
  7. Repeat this process until the grain is filled and covered, 8 to 10 coats may be needed. Keep sanding to a minimum. The only reason to sand is to remove obvious defects, or more than 36 hours have elapsed between applications. The goal is to fill and cover the grain with Awl-Brite.

    A light rub with a Scotchbrite pad is often enough to break the glaze of the previous coat, providing sufficient adhesion for subsequent coats. If you sand, use 400 grit paper or finer.

    Tip: Avoid holidays and make it easier to see the wet edge by dulling the surface with a white or green Scotchbrite pad between coats. Rub the surface just enough to noticeably lower the gloss. This minimizes coating removal and dust while making it easier to see holidays and locate your wet edge when applying a glossy clear to a glossy surface. When the grain is filled and covered, allow to cure 8 to 12 hours. Total DFT must be 10 to 12 mils.
  8. Lightly sand the surface with 400 to 500 grit paper. Remove sanding dust and residue. Tack off with Awlgrip #73009 Tack Rags.
  9. Apply two light, finish coats of Awl-Brite The coating will be ready for light service in 12 hours.
For the finest smoothness and gloss, or to remove imbedded dust particles in the final coat, dry and hard Awl-Brite can be buffed with a fine grade of polishing compound. When buffing or polishing, use care not to remove excessive amounts of film. Use less effort near sharp edges and miters, the coating is generally thinnest in these areas.

The key to performance of a varnish system is applying enough material. This is especially true with Awl-Brite Clear Urethane.

This system calls for more coats than is necessary to achieve initial cosmetic qualities. If you stop the system when it looks good, or sand excessively, you will not achieve the desired performance.




Original article from Awlgrip

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