Installing a teak deck on Zatara
By Ken Newell
The Zatara refit project began two years ago when my partner Steve Gallo (a mortgage banker) and myself, Ken Newell (a materials engineer), decided that we wanted something to do with our spare time and money. What we didn't realize was the level to which the refit project would absorb every weekend and every non-critical dollar we had and cause our significant others to chastise us for our obsessive behavior. Nonetheless, our goal is to transform a good weekend sailing vessel into a world class blue water cruising yacht equipped with everything necessary to safely and comfortably circumnavigate the globe-well, maybe just Mexico and possibly Costa Rica.
Zatara sitting in her dock in Marina Del Rey before the start of the refit.
Zatara is a 1979 custom-built 50' cutter with nice deck lines, a great interior, and basic amenities for long distance cruising. While she lacks many of the modern conveniences of electronics and rugged sail handling hardware, she has all the right stuff to justify a refit: 300 gallon fuel capacity; 500 gallon fresh water tanks; and a solid 3/4"-thick, hand laid glass hull, and full keel, unlike those of the mass produced type being plopped in the water these days.
At some time, Zatara's previous owner had decided that the original teak deck was too much trouble to maintain and had pulled it up and paid for a fiberglass deck to be laid. Years of sailing ultimately introduced stress cracks in the fiberglass, resulting in a much less than watertight deck.
We found old pictures from the early eighties on the wall at Doug's Harbor Reef on Catalina Island of Zatara when she still sported her teak decks. Those pictures quickly convinced us that installing new teak would return the boat to her original glory.
Preparing the deck
Steve and I spent several months stripping away the original hardware, cockpit teak trim, mast, stanchions, doghouse windows and deck non-skid in preparation for laying teak. During this time, we researched every boat building book, web site, and old salt shipwright we could to learn how to lay a teak deck. After all the research and surveys of teak deck owners, we determined that the best method for laying teak planking on an existing glass deck was that described in the WEST SYSTEM® Fiberglass Boat Repair & Restoration manual for the installation of teak veneers. We planned to start with the doghouse for practice, using 1/4" teak veneers straight laid. Using the wisdom gained from mistakes on the doghouse, we then planned to steam lay the deck with sprung 3/8" strips, 3/8" thick king plank, and 1/2" margin boards cut to fit. (Having a firm grasp of the terminology prior to doing the job is critical, as nobody in the marina will believe you know what you are doing otherwise.)
We began stripping the old non-skid off the glass deck and installed a single dark tint acrylic window to replace three leaking framed glass windows. The new window installation took two months, twice as long as anticipated.
Decking the doghouse
According to the WEST SYSTEM literature, "installing a teak veneer deck is a practical and beautiful option for finishing a deck repair. Teak veneers can also be applied to decks, seats, cabin tops or hatches to improve the looks and value of any boat." Of course, we decided that we would test every aspect of this statement. To install teak on the doghouse, we followed the steps in the repair manual:
- Plan the location and pattern for the layout of the teak strips. Cut the strips to fit and mark them for reference as necessary.
- Prepare the bonding surfaces. Clean with a wax and silicone remover or solvent and abrade smooth surfaces with 50-grit sandpaper.
- Place the first set of teak strips in the desired location and mark the bonding area and reference location points on the strips and deck. Also, make sure you clearly mark the locations of each screw and washer on the planks of teak as these will be your only means of locating your screw holes when fastening the planks down into the epoxy bed. It is also helpful to number each plank in order to reference the location relative to neighboring planks.
Steve dry laying the teak planks and establishing layout. He soon realized that his drill was not cordless. The next day we learned that an 18-volt Ryobi cordless is your best friend for only $85. Buy two!
- Wet out the bonding surface of the first set of teak strips and the corresponding bonding area of the deck. Remember to solvent wipe the bonding surfaces of the teak 30 minutes before the wet-out. Apply a heavy layer of thickened WEST SYSTEM® 105/206 epoxy to the wet-out deck surface. Thicken the resin/hardener mixture to a mayonnaise consistency with 404 High-Density Filler. Then add enough 423 Graphite Powder to turn the mixture to an opaque black color. Apply enough thickened epoxy to bridge gaps between the strips and the deck and to squeeze up and fill the gap between the planks. Be sure to leave reference marks uncovered.
- Position the first set of strips on the deck. Use the reference marks as necessary.
- Clamp the strips in place with #10 sheet metal screws and large washers. Place the screws and washers between the strips, 8" apart. Each row of screws will clamp the edges of two adjoining planks and act as spacers (below). Coat the screws and washers with a mold release (cooking non-stick spray) or place a small sheet of plastic under the washers to prevent bonding. Push adjoining strips tight against the screws before tightening the screws completely. Tighten the screws enough to hold the strips firmly and force some of the epoxy mixture to squeeze up between the strips.
|Left-Steve applying epoxy/404/graphite blend prior to placing the teak planks. ||
Right-Installing planks back in their original position. Make sure to have several hundred pairs of latex gloves, numerous rolls of paper towels, and a large trash bag ready and open prior to applying the epoxy and teak.|
- Bond the remaining strips in place, several at time, following the same procedure.
- Remove the screws and washers within 24 hours.
Fill the screw holes and remaining gaps between planks with epoxy/404/graphite mixture. A syringe loaded with the mixture will speed the process of filling the holes.
Our own (non-traditional) scalloped edge pattern which we continued across the entire deck project including the king plank running down the center of the deck. The outer edge of the doghouse was fit with margin boards cut using a portable Ryobi band saw.
- Sand to level the surface and remove saw marks from the teak surface. Use a belt sander or disc sander with 50-grit sandpaper for the initial sanding. A commercial floor sander works well for large decks. Finish with 80-grit and then 120-grit sandpaper. The teak surface may be left natural or finished with marine-grade teak oil, marine varnish or WEST SYSTEM® 105 Resin/207 Hardener and a high quality two-part polyurethane varnish.
The completed doghouse teak veneer. The cost for the materials was approximately $900. We eventually filled and faired the outer edges of the doghouse flush with the 1/4" margin boards using epoxy/404, and painted it with white linear polyurethane out to the eyebrow. The sides of the doghouse were also painted white, after the deck was completed.
Beginning the deck
Once we had completed the top of the doghouse, we researched how to bend teak planks to achieve a sprung plank layout. After visiting a few web sites for steam bending wood, we developed our own low cost portable design for steam bending teak planks. It uses 4" diameter PVC tubing, 4" bolts, portable saw horses, PVC end caps, a gasoline can, and propane camping burners. Its total cost was $180, and it let us steam four planks of teak at a time.
Steam bending teak planks
Steam bending teak is quite an art. However, for our job, which required edge bending 3/8" x 1-3/4" x 12' teak planks, the process is relatively simple. The primary requirement for successfully bending teak planks is to maintain a hot flow of steam across the planks for at least one hour prior to bending. If the steam stagnates inside the tube, it cools and precipitates on the wood, preventing the wood from achieving the temperatures needed to bend. To prevent this, we drilled holes through the tube at 12" spacing to allow the steam to escape. To keep the wood from sitting in the precipitated water at the bottom of the tube, we built elevated platforms for the planks so that the steam could come into contact with the entire surface. Placing 4" bolts through the sides of the PVC tube at 3' intervals provided a simple method for achieving this.
The portable steam tube made from PVC tubing, portable saw horses, gasoline can, duct tape, and a Coleman 1500 btu propane burner. This design enabled us to steam four teak planks continuously using two Coleman burners.
For our steam bending, we found that two gallons of water would last for 6-8 hours and consume approximately four 16 oz bottles of Coleman propane. In all, we used over 30 bottles of propane. We recommend buying two propane burners in order to make the bottle change quickly enough to maintain the boiling point of the water.
Sanding the deck
Preparing the fiberglass deck prior to installing the teak is critical if the teak and epoxy are to bond successfully and last for years. Using an industrial hardwood floor sander with 40-grit paper was the best method to prepare our deck. These can be rented for approximately $100/day. Using the industrial sander and a couple of edge sanders, we prepared the deck in approximately 10 hours. The 40-grit paper leaves deep grooves, which enable the epoxy to achieve maximum grip. In fact, we found that once fully cured, the epoxy/404/graphite blend was stronger than the fiberglass deck and the teak itself.
Fitting margin boards
After the deck had been completely sanded and all the hardware removed, it was time to lay out the margin boards. We decided to use 1/2" thick margin boards to form a flow path for water towards the drains and to prevent pooling of water along our toe rail. Our margin boards are 3-1/2" wide and are joined using a serpentine joint. We chose the serpentine joint mostly for esthetics; however, it is an easily repeated pattern that accepts variations in outside edge camber.
|Left-We scribed the curve of the toe rail onto the 8"x1/2"x6' teak board, and cut it to shape with a portable band saw.|| Center-Clamps and #10 sheet metal screws with washers held the margin boards in place while bonding. ||Right-The serpentine margin board joint used for the entire length of the toe rail.|
Positioning and clamping the margin boards along the toe rail was somewhat challenging since we did not want to drill holes through the teak itself. Therefore, we used screws and washers along the outer edge and clamps along the inner edge. This method proved to be very successful. Since the margin boards are the reference edge for laying the steam bent planks, we wanted to have all the margin boards cut and bonded to the deck before we started laying planks.
Dry plank layout
Starting from the edge of the margin boards and working inward from port and starboard, we began dry laying the steamed teak planks in the sprung position to force the teak to take and hold the curve of the outer plan form of the foredeck.
|Left-Steve bending and clamping teak planks into their respective sprung positions.||Right top-The Motivator tool bending planks at wider section of the foredeck.|
We found that several 4' Quick-Grip bar clamps helped considerably when pulling the plank into its bent position. Further in towards the mid section of the deck, we used a Motivator (used for laying tile) which uses a ratcheting strap to span the wider sections of the foredeck.
|Left-Final dry lay-up with drains and through-deck holes located and sized. The most time consuming and yet most satisfying parts of the job were the trim details.
||Right-Once dry lay is completed, the planks are allowed to relax in the bent position for 3-4 weeks in order to allow the wood to accept the bend. We found that the planks would hold approximately 80% of the bend. The final 20% was easily forced back by hand during bonding.|
Steam bending and dry laying the foredeck required approximately 100 hours (two months of weekend only work) with two people working and numerous beer breaks. We expected bonding the planks to the deck to take the same amount of time.
Bonding the planks
Probably the most difficult aspect of laying a teak deck is the repetition of the process. Once we had completed the dry lay of all the planks, we had the sheer pleasure of removing all 2500 screws and 500 odd steam bent planks just so we could repeat the process all over again for bonding! However, before beginning to remove those screws and planks, it was very important to mark the position of every screw and washer relative to each plank and number each plank in an easily identifiable manner. In addition, every joint between planks needed to be marked for trimming, and centerline planks needed to be precisely marked for the king plank pattern of choice.
| Left-Beginning the process of bonding planks to the port foredeck. It is important to mark the position of every screw and washer relative to each plank and number each plank before beginning to remove those screws and planks.
|| Right-The port foredeck with all of the planks bonded in place. Dealing with the curvature reduced the number of planks that we could bond in a|