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Electrical Glossary (A-E)


Technical reference from www.Bluesea.com

Technical Glossary (Numeric-E)



NUMERIC

120V AC
The line to neutral voltage in a single phase three wire AC system as commonly found in the US.

240V AC
The line-to-line voltage in a single-phase three wire (not including green safety ground) AC system as commonly found in the US.

250V AC
The line-to-line voltage in a single-phase two wire (not including green safety ground) AC system as commonly found in Europe and many other parts of the world.

3 phase see also Single Phase
Refers to 3 phase power generation typically 480V AC and higher. The AC utility is a 3-phase system. In its simplest form there are three conductors connected to three conductive coils, which pass through a magnetic field, thus, inducing the electrons in the wires to flow. As the polarity of the magnetic field changes from North to South, electrons are induced to flow first one way then the other. This produces AC current flow. The current that is induced in the three wires is 120° out of phase. The current flow in the first conductor starts 120° before the second and it starts 120° before the third. Three phase generators are only found on the largest boats.

3 stage charging
A technique of battery charging that uses three distinct phases to ensure a fast and complete charge and a safe maintenance voltage. As there are several manufacturers of multiple stage charging systems, there is a slight difference in terminology in the field. See each key word for a more complete definition.
Stage 1: Charge or Bulk Mode
Stage 2: Acceptance or Absorption
Stage 3: Float


A

ABYC
American Boat and Yacht Council, a voluntary standards creating body for the marine industry responsible for Standards and Recommended Practices.

AC see Alternating Current

AFD see Alternator Field Disconnect

AGC Fuse
A 1-1/4 inch long x 1/4 inch diameter glass fuse with fast blow characteristics.

AIC Amperes Interrupt Current see Interrupt Rating

ATO/ATC Fuse
The blade type fuse now commonly used in the automobile industry. It has fast blow characteristics like the AGC fuse.

AWG (American Wire Gauge) see also SAE Wire Gauge
AWG (American Wire Gauge) is a U.S. standard set of non-ferrous (copper or aluminum) wire conductor sizes. The "gauge" refers to the diameter. Typical household wiring is AWG number 12 or 14. Telephone wire is usually 22, 24, or 26. The higher the gauge number, the smaller the diameter and the thinner the wire. Thicker wire can carry more current because it has less electrical resistance over a given length. Thus larger wire is used when the voltage drop along its length must be minimized. For example: High output alternator wiring might be a 2 AWG and the starter cable for a modest engine a 1 or 0 AWG.

absorption see 3 Stage Charging, see also Float Charge, Bulk, Equalization
Absorption refers to the second phase of a multistage charging system, also called acceptance by some manufacturers. During the absorption cycle the battery is maintained at the maximum charging voltage. Typically about 2.4V per cell or 14.4V for a typical 12V system. (28.8V for a 24V system). This is the gassing voltage for a liquid battery. Gelled batteries are typically charged at slightly lower voltages. The gassing voltage is also temperature dependent. The battery cannot be maintained for long periods of time in the absorption phase.

acceptance see absorption

alternating current
A periodic current (sine wave) whose average value over a cycle is zero. The current reverses at regular intervals of time and has alternately positive and negative values.

alternator
Commonly refers to the DC charging source on an engine. The alternator is a three-phase AC device that produces alternating current, which is then rectified by a diode bridge to create direct current. Three phase AC devices are reliable and inexpensive to make compared to a DC generator of the same capacity.

alternator field disconnect
The alternator field is created by a coil of wire surrounded by ferrous metals. When the coil is energized with electric current it becomes an electro-magnet. This electromagnet is rotated, inducing a current flow in the three phase coils that surround it. By controlling the strength of the magnetic field, the output of the alternator may be controlled. If the output of the alternator is open circuited there is no place for the energy to go. The voltage rises to a dangerous level. By disconnecting the alternator field, the magnetic field is turned off, thus the voltage cannot soar. This is a safety feature on some battery switches.

ambient temperature
The temperature of the medium in which the heat of a device is dissipated. The ambient temperature is often specified in standards for device performance (such as the UL Standards) as the basis for determining the heat rise of the component.

ammeter
Ammeter measures current flow in a circuit. An ammeter is inserted in series in the circuit. We consider four types:

Analog
The classic analog ammeter uses the magnetic field associated with current flow through a moving coil of wire, to in turn move a needle over a meter face which displays amps. This type of meter can only measure very small current, micro-amps, before the moving coil becomes too large to be practical. To measure higher currents a shunt resistor is inserted into the circuit. (see Shunt). Most of the current flows through the shunt resistor but some passes through a meter movement as described to read amps when the movement is scaled appropriately.

Digital DC
The digital DC ammeter uses a shunt resistor to measure current flow. (see Shunt). The shunt is connected in series in the wiring of the circuit whose current is to be measured. The shunt sense leads are connected to the DC ammeter, which is really a millivolt meter. The millivolt input from the shunt is scaled to read amps per the resistance of the shunt. For example, a current flow of 10 amps through a 100A-100mV shunt would result in a voltage of 10mV across the sense leads. A millivolt meter would display 10, which we would interpret as 10 Amps.

Digital AC
The digital AC ammeter also uses a shunt resistor to measure a voltage drop, which is then scaled to read amps. The difference, however, is that the resistor is not normally connected directly in the AC wire of the circuit to be measured. A device called a current transformer (CT, see Current Transformer) is placed around the AC wire. A current is induced in the CT, which is then passed through a load resistor. The digital meter actually measures the voltage across this load resistor and internally scales it to read the appropriate number of amps.

Portable
Most portable meters today are digital and use the same techniques of measurement as described above. However, they are commonly limited to a few amps when connected in series to measure current. If high currents are to be measured, the portable meter must use some external sensing means. Commonly these consist of shunt resistors and clamp-on ammeter sensors that use Hall Effect sensors. (Operation of which are beyond the scope of this appendix. In short, they generate a voltage, which can be scaled to read amps just as the shunt resistor.)

ampacity
The current carrying capacity of a conductor or device.

ampere see Coulomb
1) The classic definition of an ampere is a unit of electric current flow equivalent to the motion of 1 coulomb of charge, or 6.25 X 1018 electrons, past any cross section in 1 second. This is an intuitive way to think about an ampere. It is the flow of a huge number of electrons through a conductor.
2) In 1948 this alternative definition was adopted: A unit of electric current in the meter-kilogram-second system. It is the steady current that when flowing in straight parallel wires of infinite length and negligible cross section, separated by a distance of one meter in free space, produces a force between the wires of 2 x 10-7 newtons per meter of length.

ampere-hour
The electric charge transferred past a specified circuit point by a current of one ampere in one hour.

Amp-Hour Rating (AH)
This is a common rating for batteries. This is the total number of ampere-hours that a battery can deliver over 20 hours at a constant rate of discharge before the battery voltage falls below 10.5 volts.

analog
Refers to a signal or input that varies continuously over time. Voltages and currents are analog signals, as are temperature and pressure.

anode
The electrode of an electrochemical cell with the more negative potential. The less noble metal of an electrolytic cell that tends to corrode.



B

battery
see also Cell
Two or more cells connected together. Thus a group of batteries connected together can also be referred to as a battery.

battery bank
When groups of 6V or 12V batteries are wired in series or parallel or a combination to increase voltage or capacity the entire group is referred to as a battery bank. When batteries are connected in series the amp-hour rating is the same and the voltage is additive. When batteries are connected in parallel the voltage is the same and the amp-hour rating is additive.

battery state-of-charge
The term is used to describe and estimate of how much energy the battery is able to deliver. There have been many attempts to develop improved state-of-charge estimates. The most common methods include: specific gravity, at-rest open-circuit voltage, and amp-hour measurement.

battery switch rating see Continuous Switch Rating and Intermittent Switch Rating

battery types

AGM (Absorbed Glass Mat)
A technique for sealed lead-acid batteries. The electrolyte is absorbed in a matrix of glass fibers, which holds the electrolyte next to the plate, and immobilizes it, preventing spills. AGM batteries tend to have good power characteristics, low internal resistance, and good behavior during charging.

Flooded
A design for lead-acid batteries. The electrolyte is an ordinary liquid solution of sulfuric acid. Flooded cells are prone to making gas while being charged. Flooded cells must be periodically checked for fluid level and water added as necessary. Flooded cells are also typically less expensive than AGM or gel cell type lead-acid batteries.

Gel cell
Gel or sealed lead acid batteries are basically the same chemistry as a wet (flooded cell) battery. The batteries' electrolyte is in a gelatin form and is absorbed into the plates and the battery is sealed with epoxies. The batteries are exceptionally leak resistant and may be used in any position. Battery uses are UPS, emergency lights, and camcorders. These batteries are 2 volts per cell, so the common batteries are 4, 6, and 12 volt.

blade
That portion of a fuse to which the fuse block connects.

bonding, cathodic
The electrical interconnection of metal objects in common contact with water, to the engine negative terminal, or its bus, and to the source of cathodic protection.

branch circuit see also main
The portion of the wiring system after the main circuit protection device.

break (rating)
The amount of current that can be passing through a set of contacts, such as those in a solenoid, when they open, without damaging the contacts. This can be a rating for a single event or over some number of cycles, generally 1000, 10,000 or 1000,000.

bulk
That part of a multistage charge regime in which the maximum amount of current is flowing. This is normally limited by the size of the charging source. Lead acid batteries have the ability to accept, or absorb, large charging currents as long
as they do not overheat or begin gassing. The bulk cycle allows the fastest possible charge.

bus, busbar
A bus is a group of common connections, often consisting of a strip of copper or brass with a number of screws or bolt studs for the connection of wires. It may be a negative or a positive bus.



C

CE (Conformita Europaenna)
The CE marking is a conformity marking consisting of the letters "CE". The CE marking is applied to products regulated by certain European health, safety and environmental protection legislation. The CE marking is obligatory for products it applies to. The manufacturer affixes the marking certifying that the product conforms to applicable regulations, in order to be allowed to sell the product in the European market.

CFR (Code of Federal Regulations)
The written regulations of the United States Federal Government.

cathode
The electrode of an electrochemical cell with the more positive potential. The more noble metal of an electrolytic cell that tends not to corrode.

cell
An electrochemical system that converts chemical energy into electrical energy. Typically consisting of two conductive plates with different galvanic potential immersed in an electrolyte.

cell, primary
An electrochemical device, which is discharged only once and then, discarded.

cell, secondary see also Battery
An electrochemical device, which may be discharged and recharged a number of times.

charge
Classically refers to an accumulation of electrons producing an electrostatic charge. In common use it often refers to restoring energy to a battery. Specifically, it would refer to the part of a multi-stage battery charging cycle when the voltage was held constant at or about the gassing voltage.

charge cycle
The stages through which a multi-stage charging source restores energy to a battery. A four-stage charge cycle includes:
bulk or charge cycle: Constant current for fast charging
acceptance or absorption cycle: Constant voltage for thorough charging
float cycle: For maintenance and long life
equalization cycle: Controlled overcharge for maximum capacity.
see key words above

circuit
A closed path of electrically, or electro-magnetically connected, components or devices that is capable of current flow. Typically consisting of loads, sources, conductors, and circuit protection (circuit breakers and fuses). For example: A battery, fuse, and bilge pump connected together with wire are a circuit. The path must be continuous and closed.

circuit breaker
A device that, like a fuse, interrupts a current in an electric circuit when the current becomes too high. Unlike a fuse, a circuit breaker can be reset after it has been tripped. When a high current passes through the circuit breaker, the heat it generates or the magnetic field it creates causes a trigger to rapidly separate the pair of contacts that normally conduct the current.

Circular mils
A method of specifying wire size mathematically. One Circular Mil is a unit of area equal to that of a circle .001" in diameter. The actual area of a Circular Mil is:
A = r2A = 3.1428 x (.0005)2 inchesA = .0000007857 square inches

Class-T fuse
A very robust fuse carrying a 20,000 AIC. It also has very fast response to short circuit currents.

coil see inductor

Cold Cranking Amperes (CCA) see also Marine Cranking Amperes
CCA is the discharge load in amps which a battery can sustain for 30 seconds at 0° F. and not fall below 1.2 volts per cell (7.2V on 12V battery). This battery rating measures a burst of energy that an engine needs to start in a cold environment. This rating is used mainly for rating batteries for engine starting capacity and does not apply to NiCad batteries, NiMH batteries or Alkaline batteries.

common
May have more than one meaning. Typically denotes a bus that is at ground potential most often. The negative bus is called "the common"; sometimes the neutral bus is also called "the common". May also mean a group of connections that are connected together "in common" even though they are at a different potential than ground.

conductivity
Conductance is the reciprocal of resistance, which depends on the resistivity constant of the material. Resistivity is the resistance of a conductor having unit cross section and unit length. Conductivity is the reciprocal of the resistivity. Its units are 1/ohm-cm or ohm/cm, or 1/ohm-circular mils/ft.

conductor
That part of an electrical circuit whose resistance relative to the balance of the circuit is zero. For example, in a circuit consisting of a light bulb and a battery, connected together with wire, the wire is referred to as the conductor.

Conformita Europaenna see CE

continuous current
The current flow, which a device or a conductor can carry, consume, or supply with no time limit. The continuous current rating is normally dependent on the temperature, since resistance increases with temperature. For battery switches the continuous current rating is established by testing for one hour at the rating. This is reasonable since thermal equilibrium would be reached within one hour.

continuous switch rating (UL)
The two ratings in the UL marine battery switch standard are Intermittent and Continuous. Intermittent is a 5 minute rating and is based on temperature rise of various sections of the switch as the rated current is applied over a 5 minute period. The Continuous rating is the same, but the time period is 1 hour.

converter
An electrical device that converts one type of electrical energy into another. Battery chargers convert AC power to DC to charge the battery. Inverters convert DC power into AC, both are converters. Often used in RV industry to mean a power supply that runs the domestic DC loads when shore power is available.

coulomb see also Amperage
The measurement unit of electric charge, which is determined by the number of electrons in excess (or less than) the number of protons. Classically a charge of 1 coulomb = 6.25 X 1018 electrons.
The meter-kilogram-second unit of electrical charge equal to the quantity of charge transferred in one second by a steady current of one ampere.

counterpoise
That portion of an antenna system composed of wires or other types of conductor arranged in a circular pattern at the base of the antenna at a certain distance above ground. Insulated from the ground, it forms the lower system of antenna conductors.

cranking (starting)
Normally associated with "cranking current" which is the current required by the starter circuit prior to engine starting. The cranking current varies significantly during the starting cycle. Initially, there is a large surge of current required to overcome the inertia and compression of the engine. This surge can be two to four times the average cranking current. Once the engine is turning there are peaks and valleys as the pistons go through the compression and exhaust cycles. The cranking current rating is used for sizing batteries, cables, and battery switches.

current see also Amperage
Current is a flow of electrical charge carriers, usually electrons or electron-deficient atoms. The common symbol for current is the uppercase letter I. The standard unit is the ampere, symbolized by A. Physicists consider current to flow from relatively positive points to relatively negative points; this is called conventional current or Franklin current. Electrons, the most common charge carriers, are negatively charged. They flow from relatively negative points to relatively positive points.
Electric current can be either direct or alternating. Direct current (DC) flows in the same direction at all points in time, although the instantaneous magnitude of the current might vary. In an alternating current (AC), the flow of charge carriers reverses direction periodically. The number of complete AC cycles per second is the frequency, which is measured in Hertz. An example of pure DC is the current produced by an electrochemical cell. The output of a power-supply rectifier, prior to filtering, is an example of pulsating DC. The output of common utility outlets is AC.

current rating
The maximum current in amperes that a device will carry continuously under defined conditions without exceeding specified performance limits.

current transformer see also Ammeter
The "CT", as current transformers are commonly referred to, is used by AC ammeters to "sense" current flow in a wire in an AC circuit. It is a toroidal coil of wire through which a wire whose current we wish to measure is passed. It is normally encapsulated and looks like a "doughnut", which is how electricians commonly refer to it. The doughnut has two wires coming out of it, which are connected to the AC ammeter. As current flows in the AC wire we wish to measure, it induces a current flow in the current transformer. The magnitude of the current varies directly with the current flowing in the AC wire. Current transformers are rated by the number of maximum amps that can flow in the measured wire and the current generated, by the CT, at that current flow. For example: A 50:5 CT is rated for 50 amps flowing in the measured wire, and it generates 5 amps of current as a consequence.

cycle
A cycle of a battery is a discharge plus a charge. For example, if a fully charged battery has a load applied, is then discharged and recharged, that is one cycle. Cycle life is the total number of cycles a battery yields.


D

DC
see Direct Current

deep-cycle batteries
Batteries with thick plates to allow for reserve energy to be stored within the battery plate and released during slow discharge for prolonged periods. The high-density active material remains within the batteries' plate/grid structure longer, resisting the normal degradation found in cycling conditions. Deep cycle batteries are typically used where the battery is discharged to a great extent and then recharged.

delay
A difference in time between the initiation of an event and its occurrence, or between an event's observation and enunciation of it. This is usually used to refer to the time between the application of rated amperage to a fuse or circuit breaker and the time when the device opens.

derating
A decrease in a device's rating, usually amperage, due to its application in ambient conditions different from those in which it was tested or for which it was designed originally.

dielectric strength
The maximum voltage stress that a material can withstand without rupture.

digital
A digital signal is one which has only two valid values denoted as 1 or 0. Commonly these are equated to distinctly different voltage. For example: A voltage of +5V would equal a 1 and a voltage of 0V would equal a 0.
A digital meter is one that displays values as numerical values rather than as the position of a meter on a relative scale.

Direct Current (DC)
An electric current that always flows in the same direction. The magnitude may vary but the current direction is always the same. Commonly referred to as DC. Examples of direct current sources are batteries, fuel cells, and photovoltaic cells. DC sources such as battery chargers and alternators actually use rectified AC current as the source.

discharge
Refers to the consumption of energy from a battery, or to the electrostatic discharge associated with a lightning bolt, capacitor, etc.
double insulation system
An insulation system comprised of basic insulation and supplementary insulation, with the two insulations physically separated and arranged so they are not simultaneously subjected to the same deteriorating influences to the same degree.

double pole
Indicates a switch, relay, or circuit breaker with two separate conductive paths, which are opened or closed when the device is operated.


E

Earth
The third planet from the sun in Astronomy, but in electrical terms it refers to a connection, which is made to a conductor that is connected to the planet Earth. In grounded electrical systems there is a connection, which is a copper rod or some other highly electrically conductive connection, to the actual Earth. This is to ensure a safe conductive path for a short circuit, which in turn helps prevent electrocution.

electrode
A conductive material, in an electrolyte, through which electrical current enters or leaves.

electrolysis
Chemical changes in a solution, or electrolyte, due to the passage of electric current.

electrolyte
A liquid in which ions are capable of migrating and, therefore capable of conducting current. Solutions of acids, bases, and salts in water are electrolytes.

electron see also Coulomb
An electron is a negatively charged subatomic particle. It can be either free (not attached to any atom), or bound to the nucleus of an atom. In electrical conductors, current flow results from the movement of free electrons from atom to atom individually, and from negative to positive electric poles in general.
The charge on a single electron is considered as the unit electrical charge. It is assigned negative polarity. Electrical charge quantity is not usually measured in terms of the charge on a single electron, because this is an extremely small charge. Instead, the standard unit of electrical charge quantity is the coulomb, symbolized by C, representing about 6.25 x 1018 electrons.

Electromotive Force (EMF)
Commonly referred to as voltage, electromotive force is the energy per unit of charge that is supplied by a source of electrical energy such as a battery, charger or alternator.

Electromagnetic Interference (EMI)
Noise generated by a load (typically by electrical switching action). Usually specified as meeting agency limits for conducted EMI (noise reflected back onto the power bus) or radiated EMI (noise emitted into the area surrounding a device).

energy see also Power
The classically simple definition is, the capacity to do work. Energy may be manifested as, mechanical motion, thermal heat, or electrical power, which is consumed, radiated, dissipated, or stored over a period of time. The energy in a direct-current circuit is equal to the product of the voltage in volts, the current in amperes, and the time in seconds. The units for energy are Watt-hours. In alternating current (AC) circuits, the expression for energy is more complex.

engine negative terminal
The point at which the engine negative, generally the engine block, is connected to the negative of the battery.

equalization see Charge Cycle
Equalization is a controlled overcharge, which removes lead-sulfate that is not converted during normal charging. Equalization is best accomplished by using a constant current of 2-7% of battery capacity while allowing the battery voltage to rise to its highest "natural voltage". For a 12V battery this can be as high as 16.2V. The equalization cycle is continued until the specific gravity of all cells cease to continue to rise and are approximately equal. The equalization cycle should only be used on liquid electrolyte batteries and only while the operator is on the premises.

equalizer
A device wired across the same potential poles of a multiple bank battery bank consisting of serially wired batteries, i.e., two 12 volt batteries in series to produce 24 volts. Anequalizer maintains half its input voltage at its output terminals. When loads are taken off one of the batteries in the bank at that batteries voltage, which is half of the bank voltage, the equalizer senses that battery's voltage is no longer the one half the voltage of the entire bank and the equalizer "recharges" the lower voltage battery from the higher voltage battery.



Original article from Blue Sea Systems

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