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Awlgrip Application Guide - General Info

The Awlgrip Application Guide is in five basic parts:
  1. General Guidelines - Includes recommendations and tips for:
    • Surface cleaning.
    • Application equipment selection.
    • Air compressors and compressed air.
    • Sanding and masking materials.
    • General paint environment.
  2. Above Waterline Application Systems
  3. Below Waterline Application Systems
  4. Troubleshooting
  5. General Information - includes
    • Glossary of Paint Terms
    • Maintaining the Topcoats
Complete Application Guide

If after reading the material you still have specific questions, call, fax, or write the Customer Service Department

  • United States
    1 East Water Street,
    IL 60085,
    Telephone: +1 847 599 6212
    Fax: +1 847 599 6209
  • Europe
    Bannerlaan 54
    2280 Grobbendonk
    Telephone: +32 (0)14 25 77 70
    Fax: +32 (0)14 23 08 80
  • Australia
    Unit E54
    Gold Coast City Marina
    76 Waterways Drive,
    Queensland 4209,
    Telephone: +61 7 5573 9655
    or 1800 007 866
    Fax: +61 7 5529 9329
  • Singapore
    449 Tagore Industrial Avenue,
    #01-03 Greatland Industrial Building,
    Singapore 787820
    Telephone: +65 6453 1981
    Fax: +65 6453 1778

Application Guide - General Info

Glossary of Terms
A B C D E F H  I  L O P R S T U V W

Tips for Maintaining an Awlgrip or Awlcraft 2000 Topcoat
  1. Do
  2. Do Not
Previous Chapter - Troubleshooting
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Ablative Coating: A coating that wears away in service by design Awlstar Gold Label Anti-Fouling is an ablative coating.

Accelerator: Catalyst, a material which accelerates the curing of certain coatings. Pro-Cure X-98 and X-138 are accelerators for Awlgrip Topcoats.

Acrylic: Coating based on a polymer containing short chain esters of acrylic and methacrylic acid. Awlcraft 2000 is an acrylic resin cross-linked with an isocyanate resin (acrylic urethane).
Activator: Term used for the converter or curing agent. A required component in a coating's mix.

Additives: Any one of a number of special chemicals added to paint to bring about special effects; examples are Pro-Cure Accelerator, Griptex Non-Skid, #1010 Flattening Agent.

Adhesion: The phenomenon by which one material is attached to another by means of surface attraction.

Adsorption: Process of attraction to a surface; attachment. The retention of foreign molecules on the surface of a substance.

Air Cap: The structure at the front of a spray nozzle which directs compressed air against the paint to form and shape an atomized cloud of droplets.

Airless Spray: System of applying paint in which the paint, under high pressure, is passed through a nozzle and broken into droplets (i.e. atomized) when it enters the lower pressure region outside the gun tip. A much smaller volume of air is used than in conventional air spraying so that problems of dry spray and paint bounce-back are reduced. Airless spray is preferred for Hull-Gard Primers and Awlstar Anti-Foulings.

Air Spray: System of applying paint in the form of tiny droplets in air; paint is broken into droplets (i.e. atomized) by a spray gun as a result of being forced into a high velocity air stream. Shape and paint density of the resulting droplet cloud can be controlled by air pressure, paint viscosity, and gun tip geometry. Air spray is preferred for applying Awlgrip Topcoats.

Atomization: Formation of tiny droplets of liquid as in paint spraying process; atomization is usually caused by turbulence in an air stream, or sudden drop in pressure.

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Blistering: The formation of hollow bubbles or water droplets in a paint film; usually caused by the expansion of air or moisture trapped beneath the film. Blisters can form around salt crystals trapped under a paint film because salt attracts moisture.

Break-Free Rinse: When the rinse water sheets out over a surface with no holes, breaks, or “pull backs” after cleaning. This indicates the surface is clean; free of dirt, wax, grease, oil and other contaminants. Also known as a water break-free surface.

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Catalyst: Chemical used to change the rate of a chemical reaction; catalyst differs from a converter/curing agent in that the catalyst is not itself chemically consumed in the reaction while a curing agent is consumed; technically, catalysts that increase reaction rates are called accelerators; those which decrease reaction rates are called inhibitors or retarders. Often used incorrectly to identify converters or co-reactants in two component coatings. See Converter.

Checking: Type of failure in which cracks in the film begin at the surface and progress downward; the result is usually a straight V-shaped crack which is narrower at the bottom than the top. Checking is a method for relieving surface stresses. If the underlying surface is exposed, the failure is called cracking.

Converter: Co-reactant of the base in a two component coating; often—but not always—transparent, containing only resin and solvent. When the base and converter are mixed in different volumes, the converter quantity is usually listed second, after the base quantity. Converters are often called catalyst, activator, or hardener.

Copolymer: In anti-fouling coatings, an ablative anti-fouling with the toxin chemically bound to the polymer.

Corrosion: Decomposition of a metal in contact with its environment.

Coverage: The area a given unit of paint will cover at a specified thickness.

Curtain Call: The time at which gravity overcomes a coating’s film forming properties, resulting in sags or curtains.

Cross-Linking: Method by which polymers unite to form a protective film; the method of cure in two component enamels.

Cure: The process by which paint is converted from the liquid to the solid state.

Curtaining: Sagging.

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Dew Point: The temperature at which water vapor condenses from the air; the dew point varies with relative humidity.

Distinction of Image (DOI): The quality of the reflection in a high-gloss finish. The mirror effect of the finish.

Dry Film Thickness (DFT): The film thickness of paint after all the solvent has evaporated from the wet paint.

Dry Spray: Sprayed paint which loses so much solvent in the air that it becomes too dry to flow out over the surface; dry spray usually has a lower gloss than the properly sprayed surface.

Drying Time: Time interval between application and final cure.

Dry to Handle: Time interval between application and ability to handle without damage.

Dry to Recoat: Time interval between application and ability to receive next coat satisfactorily.

Dry to Touch: Time interval between application and tack-free time.

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  1. A paint which forms a film by chemical union of its component molecules during cure; 2.) In shop terminology, any paint which is not a lacquer.
  2. Epoxy: Type of paint, adhesive or plastic noted for high mechanical strength, good adhesion and resistance to solvents, acids, alkalis, and corrosion. Epoxies do not weather well.

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Fairing Compound: Filler putty used to fill surface depressions and shape forms until they are fair or smooth.

Filler Primer: Heavy paint applied to fill holes or other irregularities in a surface prior to topcoating.

Film Build: Dry film thickness characteristics per coat.

Film Thickness Gauge: Device for measuring film thickness above substrate; dry or wet film thickness gauges are available.

Flash Point: The lowest temperature at which a given flammable material will flash if a flame or spark is present.

Fluid Needle: The stop/start valve for fluid flow through the fluid tip.

Fluid Tip: Orifice in a spray gun into which a fluid needle is seated. The paint exits the spray gun at the fluid tip.

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Hiding Power:
The ability of a paint to mask the color or pattern of a surface.

High Solids Paint: Coatings that comply with regulations limiting the amount of volatile (organic solvents) materials in their composition. High Solids Coatings are generally more than 50% solids by volume.

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Inability to mix with or adhere to another material.

Induction: The time period required for the mixed base and converter components to cross-link chemically. Products requiring induction periods before application will not perform as designed without this waiting period.

Intercoat Adhesion: The ability of each coat of paint to stick to the preceding coat.

Isocyanate Resins: Resins characterized by NCO grouping. Isocyanate resins are used in polyurethane converters. AWL-CAT #2 and AWL-CAT #3 contain isocyanate resin.

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Lacquer: Traditionally a paint which contains a synthetic resin and forms a film by solvent loss; the film remains susceptible to attack by the same or similar solvents; there is no chemical reaction or curing by the polymer.

Lifting: Softening and raising of an undercoat by application of a topcoat.

Linear Polymer: Polymer containing little or no branching (e.g. high density polyethylene and nitrocellulose of acrylic lacquers).

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Orange Peel:
impled appearance of dried film; resembling an orange peel.

Osmosis: Transfer of liquid through a paint film or other membrane.

Overspray: Sprayed paint which misses the area being painted and falls upon the surrounding surface.

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Material which when applied as a liquid to a surface, forms a solid film for the purpose of decoration and/or protection; generally a paint contains a binder(s), solvent(s) and a pigment(s); often other materials are present to give special properties to the paint film (e.g. such additives are rust inhibitors, light stabilizers, and softening agents (i.e. plasticizers).

Polyester: Type of paint or plastic containing the chemical group (RCOOCT). Awlgrip Topcoats are made from polyester resins.

Polymers: Poly—meaning many, mer—meaning units; very large molecules built up by the combination of many small molecules; they often consist of many thousands of atoms. Polymers form the backbone or binder of a coating; often called resin.

Polyurethane: Wide range of possible binder systems with unique qualities; the aliphatic type is used for the highest quality enamels. The most durable aliphatic polyurethanes are polyester resins co-reacted with an isocyanate resin. Awlgrip Topcoats are based on this chemistry.

Primer: Type of paint applied to a surface to increase its compatibility for the topcoat or to improve adhesion or the corrosion resistance of the substrate.

Primer Surfacer: Paint used to prime a surface as well as fill irregularities.

Profile: Surface contour as viewed from the edge.

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Reducer: Solvent added to a coating to reduce the viscosity and/or alter the dry time. Often called thinner.

Resin: Material, natural or synthetic, contained in varnishes, lacquers, and paints; the film former.

Retarders: A solvent added to a paint to slow down its evaporation rate; retarders are often esters.

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Sheeting Out: When rinse water spreads out over a surface in sheets, with no holes, breaks or “pull backs”. Also known a a water break-free or break-free surface.

Solids: The resins, pigments, and additives that form the permanent paint film after the volatile (solvents) components have evaporated. The solids content is expressed as a percentage of the total wet mix. Low V.O.C. coatings are often referred to as “High Solids”.

Solvent: The liquid or blend of liquids used to dissolve or disperse a paint; a true solvent is a single liquid that can dissolve the paint.

Spray Cap: Front enclosure of a spray gun equipped with atomizing air holes.

Spray Head: Combination of needle, tip, and air cap.

Substrate: Surface to be painted.

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Tack Coat: A light finish coat that is allowed to dry or become tack free before subsequent heavier coverage coats are applied to the surface.

Tack Free: When a paint film has dried to a point where it is still soft, but not sticky. When pressure is applied to the surface, the coating will deform but not come off on the contact object.

Tape Adhesion: A test used to check for adhesion of a paint to a surface; the paint is scribed with an “X” or a cross-hatch line pattern and tape is applied over the scribed area; the tape is then ripped away and examined for paint which as been pulled from the surface.

Topcoat: Usually the final paint film applied to a surface.

Two Cloth Wiping Method: System of cleaning a surface where one cotton cloth rag is soaked in a solvent and used to wipe the surface; then a dry cloth is used to blot the surface. The second cloth lifts contaminants off the surface with the solvent it absorbs. Cloths are changed frequently to maintain maximum efficiency.

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Ultraviolet Stabilizers/Absorbers: Chemicals added to paint to absorb the ultraviolet radiation present in sunlight; ultraviolet radiation decomposes the polymer molecules in a paint film and thus U.V. stabilizers are used

Urethanes: Type of paint or polymer characterized by the presence of ROCONHR linkages; urethanes are noted for their toughness and abrasion resistance. Usually two component coatings where an acrylic or polyester resin is co-reacted with an isocyanate resin. Awlgrip Topcoats are two component urethanes based on polyester and isocyanate resins. Awlcraft 2000 uses an acrylic resin in place of the polyester resins.

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Viscometer: Device for measuring the viscosity of a liquid. Several types are in use; some measure the time for a bubble to rise, or a ball to fall through a column of liquid. Others measure the time required for a given volume of liquid to drain through a standard size hole in the bottom of a cup.

Viscosity: The property of liquid which enables it to resist flow; a thick liquid such as molasses has a high viscosity.

Back to top of pageW

Wash Primer: Thin, corrosion inhibiting paint usually chromate pigmented with a polyvinyl butyrate binder. Awlgrip Corporation G9072/G3014 is this type of product.

Wet Edge: Keeping the paint wet enough when it is applied by brush so it can be brushed back into without showing lines or demarcations from one painted area to the next.

Wet Film Thickness (WFT): The thickness of a paint film measured while it is still wet. Wet film thickness must be measured immediately after application before any solvent evaporation and the resultant film shrinkage occur.

Back to top of pageTips for Maintaining an Awlgrip or Awlcraft 2000 Topcoat
It is difficult for dirt, grime, and grease to adhere to an Awlgrip or
Awlcraft 2000 Topcoat. However, over time, a build up of dirt, grease, and other contaminants can cause the finish to appear dull. The mirror-like gloss can be easily maintained by following these simple rules, and by using Awlgrip's Awlwash Wash Down Concentrate and Awlcare Protective Polymer Sealer.

Maintain your topcoats with Awlwash/Awlcare - some tips on maintaining your boat's natural beauty (This powerpoint presentation is about 16mb in size and may take some time to download depending on the speed of your Internet connection.)

  1. Regular Cleaning will avoid build of dirt, grease and other contaminants which can slowly cause premature aging of Awlgrip or Awlcraft 2000. This premature aging can cause the finish to appear dull.

    Wash the surface regularly with fresh water and Awlwash Wash Down Concentrate (73234) which is formulated to clean Awlgrip and Awlcraft 2000 topcoats. Awlwash does not contain alkalies, acids, or abrasives. Some "marine soaps" are not suitable for use on painted surfaces. When using Awlwash, it is important to dilute as specified on the label.

    When washing it is important to keep the surface wet to prevent Awlwash from drying on the surface. Use soft, non-abrasive cloths, sponges or washing mits when washing.

    Thoroughly rinse all surfaces with fresh water after washing to remove all detergent residue. A water softener is recommended to eliminate hard water residue. Wiping the surface dry with a chamois or soft cotton towel is recommended.

    If water spots occur, they can be removed with Awlcare Protective Polymer Sealer (73240).
  2. Awlgrip only
    Solvents such as Awl-Prep-T0008, Awl-Prep Plus-T0115 (or T0340 Surface Cleaner in Europe), Awl-Prep 400-T0170, toluene, lacquer thinner, M.E.K., acetone, or kerosene may be used to soften or remove heavy build up of grease and grime, felt tip markings, or aerosol spray paint on the Awlgrip Topcoat.

    Awlcraft 2000 ONLY: Use only milder solvents to remove stubborn stains. AWL- PREP T0008, Awl-Prep 400-T0170, mineral spirits, xylene, and kerosene are acceptable for use on Awlcraft 2000.

    FOR BOTH Awlgrip AND Awlcraft 2000:
    When using solvents to remove stains, test an inconspicuous area first. Apply cleaning solvents with soft clean cloths. Wipe up solvent quickly. Do not allow solvent to dry on the surface or puddle and soak into the surface. After the use of solvents, wash these areas with Awlwash (73234) and water to remove any residue.
  3. Always thoroughly rinse all surfaces with fresh water after cleaning with Awlwash or solvents. Latent solvent residue can attack the Awlgrip or Awlcraft 2000 Topcoat, while the wash down residue will attract dirt.
  4. Use distilled white vinegar and hot water to remove stubborn salt stains. Washing with Awlwash after use of vinegar is recommended.
  5. Use Awlcare (73240), by hand only, to remove stubborn diesel soot stains.
For both Awlgrip and Awlcraft 2000
Protecting the surface with Awlcare (73240) will help maintain the gloss of Awlgrip and Awlcraft 2000. Awlcare is a hand applied, non-abrasive, synthetic polymer. It will remove mild stains, water spots and diesel soot while increasing resistance to attack from acid rain and other pollutants, when applied regularly. It contains no harsh abrasives. Awlcare leaves a non-yellowing, protective polymer coating which lasts through multiple washings. Use Awlcare to temporarily seal and restore gloss to painted surfaces dulled by age or mistreatment.

Do Not
  1. Do not use traditional waxes. General: Traditional waxes break down rapidly. The residue can cause the topcoat to appear yellow, plus it attracts dirt. This creates the need to maintain the wax, increasing overall maintenance. Traditional waxes which contain no abrasives probably do little harm to the coating, but offer no benefit.

    Awlgrip has developed Awlcare Protective Polymer Sealer (73240) for those who want to enhance their finish and need the additional cleaning power of a hand applied, dry wash product. Awlcare is a non-yellowing sealer that will protect both Awlgrip and Awlcraft 2000 with regular applications. Hand applied Awlcare will not harm Awlgrip's topcoats and can easily be removed with Awl-Prep Plus-T0115 (or T0340 Surface Cleaner in Europe) when it is time to repaint.

    Awlgrip Only: Regular applications of Awlcare will help temporarily seal and restore shine to painted surfaces that have become porous due to age or mistreatment, helping to maintain a satisfactory appearance until there is time to repaint.

    Awlcraft 2000 Only: Awlcare Protective Polymer Sealer will help maintain the gloss on Awlcraft 2000 topcoats with regular applications. Especially those which have been buffed or polished. Remember, Awlcare is only applied and buffed by hand. Never apply or buff Awlcare with a machine.
  2. Do not use abrasives, scratch pads, or compounds. Scratching the surface gives dirt a place to cling while wearing out the resin layer. Using abrasives of any kind will reduce the overall life of the finish and voids the Awlgrip Limited Warranty.
  3. Do not allow contact between Awlgrip or Awlcraft 2000 Topcoat and teak cleaners. Most teak cleaners contain acids or caustic agents that stain and discolor an Awlgrip or Awlcraft 2000 Topcoat.
  4. Do not allow metal polishes to dry on the surface of Awlgrip or Awlcraft 2000. Metal polishes may discolor and stain the painted surface. Metal polishes contain acids. Rain water and dew running off metal fittings will spread metal polish residue onto the paint surface and will etch and dull the paint finish. Washing freshly polished metal fittings thoroughly with Awlwash and water can help eliminate polish residue and reduce the metal polish run off.
  5. Do not use strong solvents (e.g. lacquer thinner, M.E.K., acetone) to clean Awlcraft 2000, Awl-Brite or Awlspar Varnish.
  6. Do not allow wet equipment (e.g., seat cushions, coils of line, sails, sail covers, coolers) to trap and hold moisture against Awlgrip or Awlcraft 2000 Topcoats. This condition can result in blistering or delamination of the Awlgrip or Awlcraft 2000 Topcoat.
  7. Do not use acrylic Teflon coatings over an Awlgrip or Awlcraft 2000 Finish. Use of these coatings void the Awlgrip Limited Warranty.
  8. Awlgrip and Awlcraft 2000 winter storage
    Do not "shrink wrap" or tightly bind Awlgrip or Awlcraft 2000 Topcoat surfaces with plastic wrappings.

    When tarping a boat for storage, the cover system should be ventilated to allow the coating system to "breathe". Covers and tarps, whether synthetic or natural fiber, should not be pulled tight to surfaces painted with Awlgrip or Awlcraft 2000 Topcoat. This condition can trap and hold moisture on the surface and may result in loss of gloss, blistering, or delamination of the topcoat.
    Caution should also be used to ensure that the tarp does not chafe against the Awlgrip or Awlcraft 2000 Surface. Such chafing, especially when accompanied by airborne dirt, can abrade the surface and cause premature loss of gloss.

Original article from Awlgrip

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